Olayinka (2016) concluded that Social Studies teachers mustusethe essential teaching materials for their academic work and mustwork on waysand means to produce materials that is not available.It is thus important forthe government, administrators and parents work hand-in-hand to produceinstructional materials forteachers of Social Studies to facilitateinstructional and improvements in the learning outcomes of the students.The study found thatteaching aids are indispensable to theeffective teaching and learning activitiesand successful instructional deliveryinschools.
Hence, instructional materials are necessary to enable studentsacquire better knowledge and skills.This study also confirmed that themalestudents in the experimental group have better statistically significantmeanscores and greater achievement than the male studentsin the control groups.The male students taught withinstructional materials performed excellently thanthose who were taught without them. The study discovered that there isstatistical significant difference between the achievement mean scores offemale students in the experimental and control groups. This findings alsoindicated that there is no significant interaction effect of treatment andgender on students’achievement in Social Studies. Adipo (2015) found out that the research project indicated thatteachers have undergone an education system that had enlightened them on needto know when, why and how to use manipulative effectively in the classroom aswell as opportunities to observe; first-hand impact of allowing learningthrough exploration with concrete objects.
According to findings the differencein performance of children-respondents of the studywas found to have asignificant difference between these who used instructional materials asagainst to those who did use the instructional materials. This shows that learners who are taughtmathematics with instructional materials learn best than those who are only learnmathematics using lecture only.The study clear manifests that the improvementwas due to the intervention made by using instructional material.Moreover, theimpact of instructional material was highest in the topic of money.Studyrecommends that learners be given instructional materials to utilize bestlearning in mathematics. Nwike (2013) found out that the learnersinstructedwith instructional technologieslearned better as compared tostudentsinstructedwithoutinstructional materials. There is no actually significant difference inthe mean achievement scores ofboys and girlslearners. The null hypothesis pegat 0.
05 level of significance showed thatthere is actually significantdifference between the achievement result of those who used instructionalmaterialsand those who did notuse instructional materials. The recommendation was,thatinstructional technologies be utilized in instructions in secondary levelbecause of its impact onstudent’s performance is positive.Adebule (2015) likewise investigated the effectiveness of using instructionalmaterial on the performance of the students in mathematics. The study was comprised of selected students usingpre-test and post as a mean to measure their achievements.Multistage samplingtechnique was done to select ninety students from different secondary schools.
Aself-designed instrument wasutilized by the researcher.Thenby using MultipleBar Charts, Achievement Mean Scores, the responses were analyzed.It wasdiscovered that there were significant difference between control (without instructionalmaterials) and experimental (with instructional materials) group.The studyrecommends the vigilant supervision for the instructional materials be utilizedefficiently and regularly.Akpan (2017)made findings on the effect of instructional materials on the academicperformance of pupils.The study population comprised of all the students fromthe public and private primary schools in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abiastate. The simple random samplings technique was used for the selection of thesample and 300 pupils made up the sample for the study.
The instruments fordata collection were a questionnaire and the result of a post-test. Datacollected were analyzed using simple mean and percentage. The findings werethat the children who were taught with instructional materials performed betterthan those who were not.
It was recommended that teachers should be made toundergo seasonal trainings to acquaint themselves of the modern trends ininstructional technology; they should make out time for improvisation ofinstructional materials; an instructional material bank should be locatedwithin the reach of the teacher for easy access; there is the need to exploreand expand the scope of instructional materials from charts, and pictures tooverhead projectors, slides and web-based instruction which will requiresatellite receiver, computer, television, electronic boards etc. Peel (2014)revealed that many schools forthe deaf do not have a proper set-up for inclusive education. The factors that lead to learning breakdownand prevent learners from reaching their full potential are known as barriersto learning and development. She identified the barriers to learning and development 1. Negative attitudes to andstereotyping of differences; 2. Inflexible curriculum; 3.
Inappropriatelanguages or language of learning and teaching; 4.Inappropriate communication; 5.Inaccessibleand unsafe built environments; 6.Inappropriate and inadequate support services;7.Inadequate policies and legislation; 8.
Non-recognition and non-involvement ofparents; 9.Inadequately and inappropriately trained education managers andeducators. Solario (2014) said that there severalchallenges that is associated with deaf education. Based on his research, Head Teachers respondthat;A majority of their students had come from mainstream schools; All thehead teachers report that self-esteem was an issue on arrival; TotalCommunication was the preferred medium of communication. While deaf students respond that; Allreported that language was the main problem in their previous schools; Alienationfrom the rest of the student population due to language barriers; Labels suchas ‘thick’, ‘disruptive’ and ‘stubborn’ used to describe them in their previousschools; All preferred their present schools; Sign language skills developedmore rapidly when they transferred to special schools; All would prefer to bein a sign language environment when they leave school.
Miller (2015) said that many educators ofdeaf learners have difficulties with language communication whenever theywished to freely express thoughts and feelings about themselves. Several discoveries emerged from the studywhich suggested that visual related presentation could be instrumental asadditional ways for deaf learners to express and interpret their thoughts andfeelings. The study was hoped that their resultingart work could provide a means of expression serving more effectively thanwords. The second aspect was the form ofcommunication, feelings, thoughts and ease of expression were explored.