of of Morality and force Mankind to follow and

of the cause and effect which is attributed to a Supreme Being, may agree upon the Law of Morality and force Mankind to follow and compliant. In other words, God may expose himself immediately into the sense world when human sunk in sins and give them the order to obey the moral law. In this work Fichte proves the presentation of God as moral Being by giving a very clear moral proof. To Fichte, the revelation of God is possible as the Maker and Giver of the moral Law. And the revelation could only be in the purpose of the morality (Leighton, 1895, S. 143-153).


1.      The philosophy in favor to Hegel

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According to Schelling (1775-1854) – a friend of Hegel, he always tries to step out of and go far away from the philosophy of self-consciousness and the reflective judgment, the moral Law. And with this attempt, Schelling decisively move beyond the philosophy of Fichte. Unlike Fichte, the Absolute is self-being, self-reveal and purely arises and interfere into the world of sense; to Schelling, the question of the ‘Supreme Being’ is not his departure point. However, the consciousness is now become his arising question as the consequence from a process which is to be assumed from different dimensions, not the Subject of self-consciousness side, but also from the other aspect. Indeed, this relationship of subject and object can be grasped no more within self-consciousness itself but be grounded in an absolute indifference which is the foundation that created to this distinction. Therefore, it can only be predetermined but never be able to reflective judgment or something to be. However, anyway, the question here is not the relationship of the consciousness subject and the object anymore. This correspondence is no longer in target, unlike the reflective philosophy. The issue now is the explanation of the testification of the finiteness od the world from a basement that is forever excluded from the infinite chain of conditioned, finite, particular entities. However, not to trap into dualism, the dualism between the unconditioned base on the one hand and the conditioned infinite chain, finite existences on the other as Jacobi refers, Schelling choose to explain the manifestation of the world of finiteness out of its unconditioned ground, from an absolute indifference (Das).



At the beginning, Schelling presuppose all the knowledge and assume that all the knowledge which is known are the same between difference knowers. This is his first presupposition. With this proposition, a question immediately arise which is whether between the truth and knowledge exists any correspondence at that time. 

He starts with a perfect identity of the known and the knower, an identity that cannot be detected within subjectivity. With this notion of complete identity on subjectivity, the common-sense understanding differentiates conditional knowledge, which is the combination knowledge comes from reality from unconditional knowledge, which is extracted from human intelligence and analytic and indeed is no real knowledge. Moving beyond the conditional knowledge of the Absolute to the unconditional knowledge of the Absolute which is an immediate affirmation of this affirmation. As immediate knowledge of the absolute, Reason is Absolute Knowledge.

Reason as mentioned here is the idea of God as ‘an immediate, absolute, unconditional identity’. The Spirit unconditionally aware its absolute which can never be further based in concept, is which Schelling calls ‘intellectual intuition’. It is called intuition due to it concept is not mediated yet but still immediate, and it is intellectual due to it stays beyond the reality and it has as its certify its self-affirmation. As the unconditional base of knowledge, ‘intellectual intuition’ is not even related to of inner sense. Indeed, what Fichte calls ‘intellectual intuition’ is not seen to be a product of the inner sense but belongs to the unconditional absolute and stays beyond the self-consciousness circle. 


The nature of Reason can be assumed to be ‘intellectual intuition’ whose thing is exclusively the absolute which is unique and substance. By the high moral standards of this affirmation, Reason acknowledges “the eternal impossibility of non-being”. Being here is not an indication of God as something internal or external, but God and being here is the product of analytic, immediately and unconditionally object without duration. This absolute identity is infinite by high moral standards of its idea. Thence, God can neither be concerned as the last result of the self-negation of divergence, nor be included in a process of product. The indivisibility and univocity of Being or God is neither a numerical idea nor a notion of ensemble as aggregate unity of finite individual. This is due to the indivisibility and univocity of the God is the base for infinite separation in form or by chance.


God as the absolute identity is a intrinsical, qualitative identity. Absolute indiscrimination follows from the essential recognition of the absolute. Therefore, absolute indiscrimination is not in-itself intrinsical but a quantitative recognition. Indeed, there is a difference between absolute identity and absolute indiscrimination. The contradictory between real and ideal, between subject and object grows out of this indifference. This is the creation of the finite world. The theory of potencies in triplicates here is explained by Schelling which are “the essential modes of apparitions of the real and ideal universes”. Even the potencies in triplicates are “the essential modes of apparitions” of the finite universes, they could not be useable to the absolute identity.


Schelling, with the theory of potencies, introduces the existing of the finite universes – the are originally object. The finite’s existing, are non-being in respect to the universal, is absolute identity, but examined independently, they are not perfectly devoid of being. They are in part being and in part non-being.