Normally, the waste product from the blood isfiltered in the kidneys, but when it over accumulates, it may produce kidneystones. Kidney Stones are small, solid pebbles that are made of minerals andsalts that form within your kidneys, and it may become painful. There couldmany reasons for the formation of kidney stones because it implicates environmental and metabolicrisk factors. Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but children and teenagerscan get them, too. There are several treatments; how to treat it will depend on the type, the sizeand the location of the stones either in the kidneys or the urinarytract.Kidney stonesaffect about 5% of the world population.
The peak age for kidney stones isbetween 20 years old and 50 years old. Furthermore, the probability of having it is nearly 13% in men and 7% inwomen. Family history may also increase the risk of getting kidneystones. (University of WisconsinHospitals and Clinics Authority, 2013)Kidney stones occurin the urinary system. The urinary system is made of different organs, such asthe kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The urinary system aids the body to get rid of waste, like urea.
It also keepschemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in check. The excretory system is conformed of otherdifferent systems: urinary system, respiratory system, biliary system, and integumentary system. The main job of the excretorysystem is to eliminate all waste the body produces that would otherwise interferewith cellular function; it also regulates the content of the body’s fluid by limiting what and how muchcan go out. Inother words, the body seeks to be in homeostasis to prevent any damage.
To makeit simple, without the mechanisms that allow the human system to eliminate wastes,humans would die of intoxication, as is the case when the kidneys or the liverstop working. A clear example of the excretory in action is when cellularrespiration produces carbon dioxide and it is removed from our system by aneffective circulatory system and respiratory system, which are part of theexcretory system.There are several organs and structures thatare involved in the excretory system: kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder,urethra, lungs, skin, some glands, etc. But the ones affected by kidney stonesare only in the urinary system: kidneys, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra. “Thekidneys are two bean-shaped organs, which are about the size of a fist” (NIDDK, 2014).
Arguably, thekidneys are the most important organs of this system. They do three essential thingsthat help to balance the body: purifying the blood (table 1.1), regulatingblood pressure and the amount of water in the body, and synthetizing hormones,like erythropoietin which controls red blood cell production.
Once the kidneyshave separated all waste, the urine goes from the kidneys to the bladder troughthe ureter which are muscular tubes that are about 28 centimeters long