Nations nation’s natural existence, Benedict Andersons claims that “


Nations are natural communities built on common myths
and histories, which are passed through generations.  Despite nation’s natural existence, Benedict
Andersons claims that ” nations are imagined communities” with the imagined
common interests and reaffirmed by the common language, history and culture.
All people belong to some imagined nations, communities. It is perceived to be
our community even though we do not have personal interactions with all members
of the nation. Human kind has created imagined limitation- boarders of the
nations. Nowadays, nationalism is becoming very popular among the European
countries. Nations create shared values, figures, symbols, language and other artefacts
that are reflection of their shared culture. Those create huge bond of identity,
bond with other community members and feeling of belonging. Feeling of identity
is crucial for every human being.

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Nationalism can be reflected in pursue of full
sovereignty.  With the current social
European issues, more diversification and immigration crisis, the need for self-determination,
sovereignty, national values and culture is getting stronger.  National identity becomes dominant ideology in
the Europe.

There is also present
civic nationalism that is non-xenophobic form of nationalism that focuses
around the state and the citizenship. Civic nationalism- a political attitude
of devotion to and vigorous support for one’s country combined with a feeling
of shared community with fellow citizens, especially as contrasted with a
similar attitude based on ethnicity, race, or religion1.
Contrasting the nationalism, civic nationalism is open to immigrants and

The concept of nation
can be sometimes problematic to resolve. Currently there is ongoing debate
regarding the fact should Catalonia be perceived as an independent nation or
not. There are few ongoing debates about the self- sovereignty of the countries
in European Union and whether they should have the right to become independent
and leave the EU and what consequences can this have for the other EU members
and overall trends.



In order to discuss multiculturalism it is necessary
to understand the concept the concept itself. “The term “multiculturalism” has
come to define both a society that is particularly diverse, usually as a result
of immigration, and the policies necessary to manage such a society”2.
Therefore it is both the description of the society and problem within it and
potential solution.

Multiculturalism has its proponents and critics.
Critics claim that the multiculturalism in Europe is the reason for “social
cohesion, undermined national identities, and degraded public trust.”3
They say that Europe has allowed excessive immigration without any integration
or assimilation with the European countries. EU permitted immigrants to bring
their habits, religion, values, tradition and culture to theirs immigration
destinations. Thus, they do not become a part of community neither the nation.
Such diversity in the nation can be the source of many social issues. On the
other hand, there are proponents of multiculturalism that assert that the
problem lies not in the extensive diversity itself, but in too much racism in
those countries. The truth about it is much more complex. It is not easy to
assess whether the multiculturalism is the issue itself and should be reduced
or the solution but not adequately used. Nowadays, “multiculturalism has become
a proxy for other social and political issues: immigration, identity, political
disenchantment, working class decline.”4
What is more, different European countries follow different paths in
multiculturalism and use different approaches to implement it as a solution.
Nevertheless, all of them fail at that, having produced fragmented societies
without the feeling of unity. Both critics and proponents of multiculturalism
agree that mass immigration has changed Europe by making it more diverse. Migration
flow is the main reason for the mass inflow of people from other countries. The
migration happened mostly between other EU member citizens like: Greece, Italy,
and Spain. There is also mass migration from: Turkey and Ukraine.

The most recent migratory flow into EU is of refugees that
happened in 2015/2016. Those flows are caused but variety of push factors like
wars and unstable political position. Most of the refugees coming to EU are
from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq. 5
In 2015 there were 1 321 560 asylum claims in Europe. 6
Germany and France are the two countries that have agreed to relocate the
highest amount of people from Greece an Italy, allowing them at the same time
allowing them to enter EU7.
Current refugee crisis is one of the most crucial issues in the Europe. It is
also the source of mass inflow of diverse cultures to European countries.

Social diversity is not as new issue in the Europe as
it may seem. “Nineteenth-century European societies may look homogeneous from
the vantage point of view, but that is not how those societies saw themselves
According to the Kenan Malik’s “The Failure of Multiculturalism” there were
similar diversity issues in the nineteenth-century France and Great Britain.
Considering the French Revolution, only half of the society spoke French.
French Revolution needed process of cultural, educational, political and
economic self-colonization as it was so diversified. 9
In the Great Britain on the other hand had different social distinction, they
considered the urban working class and the rural poor as two distinct ones10.
Considering the social differences in the history of European countries, it
shouldn’t be such an issue now. Nowadays, the Europe is perceived to be more
diverse regardless the real state. This may be because of the changes in the
way people define social differences. It used to be based on the race or
religion, but now many see distinctions rooted in the class or social standing.
However even the class is becoming less relevant. Instead of that, the culture
has become more relevant as a tool for setting the social differences. People
started o define their social identity in terms of culture, rather than in
political terms.


2 Malik, Kenan. “The Failure of Multiculturalism.”

3 Malik, Kenan.
“The Failure of Multiculturalism.”

4 Malik, Kenan.
“The Failure of Multiculturalism.”

5 Eurostat
„Asylum Statistics”

6 Eurostat „Asylum
claims in Europe, 2015″

7 European Commision
„EU member state migrant quotas”

8 Malik, Kenan.
“The Failure of Multiculturalism.”

9 Malik, Kenan.
“The Failure of Multiculturalism.”

10 Malik, Kenan.
“The Failure of Multiculturalism.”