Name: Abdullah Hassan
respiratory symptoms of pulmonary disorders
one of the most common,
though nonspecific, symptoms seen in patients with pulmonary disease. It is the
powerful protective reflex arising from stimulation of receptors located in the
pharynx, larynx, trachea, large bronchi, and even the lung and the visceral
pleura. can be caused by
inflammatory, mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimulation of cough receptors
found anywhere from the oropharynx to the terminal bronchioles or simply by
tactile pressure in the ear canal. cough mechanism divided into the following three phases: Inspiratory
phase, Compression phase and Expiratory phase.
the substance expelled
from the tracheobronchial tree, pharynx, mouth, sinuses, and nose by coughing
or clearing the throat. These
respiratory tract secretions may contain a variety of materials, including
mucus, cellular debris, microorganisms, blood and foreign particles. Sputum is moved upward by the
wavelike motion of the cilia of the respiratory lining.
It is an expectoration
of sputum containing blood, varies in severity from slight streaking to frank
bleeding. It can be an alarming symptom that may suggest serious disease and
massive hemorrhage. The
site of bleeding may be anywhere in the respiratory tract, including the nose
or mouth. The amount and mechanisms of bleeding are varied.
It is defined as a subjective experience of
breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that
vary in intensity.
Pulmonary Causes of
Chest Pain Chest pain:
caused by pulmonary disease is usually the
result of involvement of the chest wall or parietal pleura.
Pleuritic pain, often described as inspiratory pain, is the
most common symptom of disease causing inflammation of the pleura.
Chest wall pain may
originate from the intercostal and pectoral muscles, ribs, and cartilages or
from stimulation of a neural pathway (neuralgia) anywhere along a dermatome.
It is a temporary loss of consciousness caused
by reduced blood flow and therefore a reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to
the brain. Pulmonary causes of syncope include pulmonary embolism, Vasovagal syncope is the most common
type of syncope and results from a loss of peripheral venous tone. It can occur
with all forms of physical and emotional stress, including pain.
It is soft tissue
swelling resulting from an abnormal accumulation of fluid. Peripheral edema caused by pulmonary
diseases occurs when the disease process causes narrowing of the capillaries in
the lung. Bilateral
peripheral edema suggests pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, or venous
insufficiency. Unilateral peripheral edema is most frequently caused by some
type of venous obstruction in that extremity, which can occur because of
constrictive clothing, jewelry and wound dressings that surround the extremity
and compress venous return.
it is an elevation of
body temperature above the normal rang resulting from disease. It is a multiple
factors symptom. Normally, humans increase sweat production about threefold
with their diurnal drop in temperature at night and may increase fivefold to
Snoring is caused by excessive narrowing of
the upper airway with breathing during sleep. Some narrowing of the hypopharynx
is normal with sleep and is the result of muscle relaxation, often a benign
symptom that is reported by the patient’s spouse or bed partner. The patient with habitual snoring
snores each night and often snores loudly. The occasional snorer most often
snores only when he or she is excessively tired, has used alcohol or a sleeping
medication, or is sleeping in the supine position.
Clinical assessment in