Music Publishing Mya LambertThe role of a music publisher is to invest time, money, passion and creativity to get companiesto invest in their artist as well as collecting money that their artist earns when their compositionis performed or played in public, for example the PRS (Performing rights society) and the MusicPublishing Association. For large groups of musicians such as an orchestra, the music publisheralso has the job of taking the composers score and creating and designating different sectionsof it to different instruments, for groups such as the London Symphony Orchestra and theBirmingham Contemporary Music Group. Sarah Osborn stated that “they all offer schemes tosupport and offer opportunities for young emerging composers”, and so there are differentmusic publishing companies for different artists in different stages of their developing career.
Some artists decide to be independent and not have a music publisher, which is possible if theirmusic isn’t played on a worldwide scale, however as your popularity increases it becomesharder to stay independent. For bigger artists its vital to have a music publisher (which areusually part of either Sony BMG, Universal music group or Warner music group), Jody Gerson,CEO of Universal Music Publishing Group stated that “you need your money collected in everyterritory throughout the world, not easy to do on your own”, suggesting that it’s hard to keep upwith everything without a music publisher, highlighting the importance of them in the musicindustry.A music synchronization licence is a form of copyright granted by the owner of a song, andallows the licensee to play a particular composition in a visual piece, such as a movie, videogame or commercial. For small independent artists a synchronization licence is very importantfor it can offer the opportunity to find new fans, for when their piece is played in a popular videoit introduces them to people who didn’t know them before. It may then get shared across othersocial platforms or purchased, which helps them build a following and get exposure to largeraudiences, this is a way for music publisher to find small artists with potential.A music publisher may talk to record companies to try to get the newest version of their artistscomposition recorded, and then get in contact with music supervisors to try to get thecomposition into films, advertisements and TV shows.
As well as licensing newer uses likeringtones, video games and digital downloads, all to try and promote the artists music and helpimprove the artists status among their audience and other artists. This way of promoting hasimproved from how it was years ago, for printed music was once the biggest way of transportingand sharing music among companies, and music was mostly played live, however due totechnological advances, we now have faster, more effective ways of sharing music. Forexample, people can now stream music online without having to pay for it, which is good andbad depending on the popularity of the artist. For a small artist, this is beneficial because theirmusic is shared quickly between people and it helps them to build up a following and getstrangers listening to their music. This was the case for Ed Sheeran, who is now a very popularartist, when he was starting off he said that people would share files to each other on theirphones, and although he got no money from it, it helped him to get people listening to his music.However, for bigger artists, they don’t need to build a following because they already have one,so they do not profit from it unless they are selling something else with the music, for exampleDr. Dre uses his music to sell beats, from which he then profits from it.
Music piracy is a problem that increased hugely by our technological advances that allowpeople to download music, from websites, onto their phones and listen to it for free, this meansthat the artists does not get paid for it. “It’s the biggest reason revenue has declined from over$14 billion back in 1999 to less than half that now”. Sometimes hackers target pre-releasedsongs to release them whilst they’re still being created, songs from Madonna’s album rebelheart were stolen before “she was ready for anyone to hear them”. Billboard Magazines JoelLevi says “pre-released piracy often happens while the music is still being produced”.
Companies like Riaa work towards preventing this theft. Google is partially responsible for theseillegal transfers, for it is a popular platform that allows people to access these websites.Unfortunately, Google has turned a blind eye to the problem, and so industries like the BritishPhonographic Industry are working to show people a legal way to listen to music, as well ascreating software to generate URLs which are send to Google as a DMCA notice for removal ofillegal websites within hours.
Artist ManagementArtist managers are in charge of running all aspects of the business side of the artist or bandscareer, allowing the artist to focus solely on creating the music. The job of the manager dependson whether its a big or small label, the manager responsible for an unsigned band or musician,or if they are signed then to a small label (such as 4AD, Matador Records or XL) often hasmultiple roles, usually a promoter, agent, accountant or any kind of profession the artist requiresto perform and have a viable career. Whereas a manager for an artist signed to a large label(such as Warner Music Group, EMI or Sony Music) functions in more of a managerial capacityand supervisors the other people employed by the musician(s). These managers have oversightand ensure that essentials such as advertising a PR campaigns are running smoothly, tours arebeing booked and that artists get paid.A couple artist managers are:Marc Oswald is in the top ten of all live concerts produced in world history with events of over340,000 fans, concert and tour promotion, television, video and film production, entertainmentmarketing and artist management.
He stated that “Out of every 100 artists, 10 becomesuccessful and 1 becomes a superstar”Jeff Dorenfeld worked with Ozzy Osbourne on tours etc. (alongside Sharon Osbourne) and wasthe personal of the multi platinum band Boston, under his management, the band had a no.1billboard charting album and a $25 million grossing tour. He quoted that “An artist should havean idea as to where they want to go, and the manager controls and helps them getthere.
..guiding their career”.When an artist has an upcoming event, it’s the artist managers job to Help promote the show,this is done first by accessing the artists websites and social media accounts and sending outinformation about the show, for the artists fans are usually the first to buy their tickets. They alsosend out coordinated emails to people to inform them of the upcoming event, it can be sentanywhere between one month to one day before the show, but they are rarely sent too close tothe event, as it makes it harder for people to attend when they have less time to plan thingssuch as transport. They can also do ticket giveaway to the general public on social media sites,this is a way to gain likes and shares on their page to promote the show. Artists can also sendout a press release of the show, as well as collaborating with radio stations to promote it to alarger group of people.
An artist manager also deals with merchandising, which helps artists prepare for working withmarketing. Selling merch not only makes a lot of money for the artist, but it also promotes them,helping to increase their following, as well as making money for the clothing brand that they pairup with. When people attend the artists shows, they can purchase signed merchandise, whichthe artist can sell for a lot more than its original price.Live performancesThe number of live performances has increased over the past decade, as artists are needing tosell seats in order to make money, due to people downloading their songs online for free insteadof buying their albums. The Berklee college of music found that individual concert promoterscan earn up to £1 million per year depending on the size of the venues they book. Michael Cohlhelped to promote huge artists including Michael Jackson, The Rolling Stones and BarbraStreisand, however he now runs a business called S2BN entertainment.The increase in live performances has also created a growth in live concert companies.
WinkyCEO and partner of Tait Towers stated that “25 years ago, musicians were making moneyselling records, now they’re making money selling seats, and that’s why we’re making stagesets”. John Ebdon who worked for Maroon 5, works for the front of house for large venues, hesaid that there are only 56 inputs from the stage and they use a pro tools software. He alsostated that “sound checks are non-existent…because they are so consistent”. Brian Gaynor alsoworks for the front of house, but for smaller venues, and is the house manager, he isresponsible for the day to day operations of the theatre, as well as making care of the audienceand making sure they are happy.
Artists, such as Taylor Swift, will ask other popular artists to play at their concerts for free inorder to increase the seats that they sell, as fans of this artists will want to attend also. This thenbenefits the guest artist as a new audience gets to listen to their music, and if they like it theymay buy their album too and attend their shows. Also the artists will then return the favour andplay at the guest artists concerts too.A lot of money is made from the retail of merchandise and tickets, with people paying more forsigned merch and backstage tickets.Health and Safety.
It is up to the event organiser to make sure that the venue is safe for workers and the audience,they need to consider the venues capacity for the audience, staff and contractors, making surethere are enough reasonable emergency exits. It is crucial to have a fire safety risk assessment,they then need to take adequate and appropriate fire safety measures to minimise the risk ofinjury or loss of life in the event of a fire.Crowd management is also a factor that the event organiser is responsible for, for there are therisks of crushing between people, crushing against fixed structures, aggressive behaviour etc.This can be done by installing barriers, which aid to manage and influence the behaviour of theaudience and prevent people from climbing up onto the structures and putting themselves at therisk of falling.With a large scale event there is the risk of terrorism which affects the retail of tickets. Followingthe terrorist attack at Ariana Grande’s concert, Jason Lipshutz from Billboard Magazine said”people are buying outdoor concert tickets and I think some people at least are going to becompelled not to buy them”. This change is less beneficial to artists and the success of sellingtickets has decreased over the past decade.The introduction to iTunes has both advantages and disadvantages for artists.
It was beneficialbecause it meant that their music could be distributed and accessed easier for fans, and peoplecould discover them without having to go out to album stores. However, by people listening totheir music online, it also decreased the number of people attending their concerts, which is whythey had to make their concerts bigger and better to get people to buy their tickets and attend.Record CompaniesBig record labels ?use good studios such as Universal/Polygram, Warner/ EMI and Sony SME/Columbia. The benefit of signing to a big label is the large budget which means everything isdone better, including high quality recordings, better production, major distribution, better musicvideos, pro advertising tours and merchandise. However there are some cons to signing to alarge record label, starting with the fact that they own you as an artist for the duration of yourcontract. This means that they will have complete creative control over your music and image.Furthermore they will continue to own your music forever or until someone else buys the ‘rights’to your songs.
In addition you are also expected to continue working hard and performing livethroughout your whole music career to pay back the money that the label has invested in you,so it becomes almost impossible to retire.On the other hand you have Independent labels, which make up 15% of the market such as XLrecordings. Just like major labels, there are advantages and disadvantages of signing to them.
The first pro is that they are usually honest fans of the artist, and know them on a more personallevel, therefore giving them the passion and drive in promoting your music, whereas major labeldon’t know you on a personal level and want you mainly to make them money. Furthermore,indie labels usually have a smaller roster of artists, which means you get more attention andhave full creative control over your music. In addition the label usually gives the artist back the’rights’ of their music after a short period of time.However, due to the small size of the label, there is usually a small budget, which means it’sunlikely they can spend money upfront, record in good quality studios, work withworld-renowned producers or have high distribution of their music.Record companies are responsible for the retail and distribution of records, in the 20th centurymusic was purchased mainly in stores such as Wal-mart and Best Buy.
However with theincrease in online purchasing, shops such as HMV have struggled with their decrease in sales,and the industry has lost billions of dollars, especially since the introduction of iTunes.Digital rights management is a set of access control technologies for preventing the use ofcopyright works, for example a label can release a CD that includes bits of information intendedto confuse ripping software. DRM is not new thing, floppy discs were also copy protected.