Moreover, the lack of political will to fully honour and oblige the applicable international humanitarian laws is seen as a hindrance in ensuring the welfare of civilians. The situation described in Darfur earlier is a golden example on how political will decides if the civilians would be protected in times of conflict. Often, unarmed men, women or children are intentionally made targets to attacks.
This happens despite the existence of Article 1 of the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention which clearly stipulates that the State is under the duty to take any preventive measures in response to repression of violation of humanitarian laws. As seen in Israel, who is amongst party to the said convention, have committed such a breach in the ongoing unsettled conflict with Palestine over Gaza strip. Israel has been using fatal force against unarmed civilians who participate in peaceful protests. During the war between the 2 states, many Palestines were displaced from their own homes and became refugees in the neighbouring countries.
History of the conflict stretches back to the aftermath of the Holocaust (World War II), where 6 million Jewish people were killed and the surviving rest, demanded a country of their own. As a result of that, a large part of Palestine was given to them. This brought dissatisfaction to the Arabs who had been living there as well as the neighbouring countries who found themselves in an unfair position if they were to accept a new country. Derivative of that, both sides went to war which landed Egypt with control over the Gaza strip, and the West Bank by Jordan.
Hence, the Palestinians had to flee their “used to be home” which suddenly became the “new Jewish home” called Israel. Soon after this, another war was initiated by Israel to gain occupation of other Palestinian territories. Recently, several Palestinians were killed by the Israeli forces who used lethal force against any civilians who peacefully protested against the decision of the President of United States, Donald Trump to make Jerusalem as the Israel capital. This is one of the hundreds of breach the Israeli party have committed. However, it can be used as an example where a contracting party to the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention has breached its provisions.
As a result of that, the civilians are supposedly protected. However, that remains on paper and not in practical. Moreover, under Article 147 and Protocol (I) Additional to the Geneva Conventions, the civilians are guaranteed the right to be protected in the occupied territories of Palestine. Despite so, this remains