Ministry of Education is in the ongoing effort to develop educationin Malaysia align with the 21st century education to positioneducation in Malaysia as a globally enhanced education among other developedcountry. Thus, government through Pelan Pembangunan Pembangunan Malaysia2013-2025 (PPPM) introduced Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT) to produce ahighly productive citizen. It is to inculcate more critical thinking withinstudent self.
As the technology advanced, it makes the source of information tobe unlimited. Todays’ students is not the same with students from few yearsback. They live with a lot of usage of technology.
Todays’ students are reallyclose with information as they can search it anytime. KBAT is said to beappropriate to be executed and suitable with the lifestyle of students’ today. KBAT involves highintellectual skill.
This skill usually involves four upper domain of cognitiveof Bloom’s Taxonomy which are application, analyse, evaluation and creating.KBAT also focus on the application of critical thinking, creative thinking,logical thinking, reflective thinking and metacognitive. In a simple words, asthe students grasp the knowledge or information conveyed by the teacher, theywill process the information in their mind and present it in their own contextwith their own style of knowledge presentation. It can be said that they have appliedcreative and critical thinking (Apa Itu KBAT | Konsep & Teori KBAT).
However, accordingto The Reporter, the statistic is on the status of KBAT in school was obtainedand it is found that 60% of school which represents 169 schools were positionedbelow the good and excellent level in their implementation of KBAT in classroomwhile 40% of school which represents 113 schools attained good or excellentlevel in their KBAT. Many news highlight in their headlines that teachers wereblame for this issue. It has to look into every aspect of why KBAT cannot reachsuccess towards its implementation. KBAT execution has potential to transformtodays’ citizen to be more critical and independent in their education but theway it is implemented define students’ performance in school. It is not theidea of KBAT is not suitable to be applied to students but it really depends onhow it is implemented align with students’ ability in learning. As KBAT start tobeing implemented in school, the acceptance of teacher and students as the mainsubject of this implementation is not really well. The culture practiced by themember of education in school is contrary to the purpose of KBATimplementation. Education in Malaysia have been practice exam-based learningsince a long time ago.
Zabani explainedthat the approach that focus on examination and lesson that centred to answerexam question makes the students’ needs to practice the knowledge obtainedbased on the real context is abandoned (as citedin Othman & Kasim, 2017). It is because Md Yusof Dawam found outthat students whose will sit for examination, teachers are prone to sharelearning techniques that help students to memorize facts not to thinkcritically for their understanding. Plus, teacher have a lot of topic to coverwithin the timeframe given so they will tend to speed up their teaching tofinish the syllabus before time or before examination. There is no additionalknowledge delivered by the teacher to widen students’ knowledge in mind. As aresult, students will struggle to understand what they have learnt.Furthermore, since they are a passive learner, students become shy to askteacher regarding the topic if they are not clear about the topic learnt whichin turn make them to memorize not to understand. Only that way can save thestudents from get the bad grade in their result. This will produce the studentsthat have strong memory and labelled as excellent students.
While those whohave weak memory will be abandoned and labelled as weak and lazy students. Thatis why when students finish their school, even though they are excellentstudent, some of them cannot make it up for higher education and even worse notbeing employed or survive in career life (as cited in Beremas Anak Inggit). As the consequences, the product of education in school become notcritical as they are not practice independent learning due too much dependanttowards the teacher to spoon feed them their needs in learning. As this culture is practiced in school, it becomes a shock to themembers of education in school because KBAT implementation change the existingculture. KBAT demands for students’ critical thinking yet many students stillin the level of understanding according to Blooms’ Taxonomy of cognitive domain.To reach higher order thinking skill, students need to pass six cognitivedomain which are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis andevaluation.In teaching profession, the delivery of knowledge or lesson isusually centred to teacher as teacher dominate the class where students act aslistener and receiver of knowledge delivered by teacher (Nasarudin, 2015).
This method of teaching cause the process oflearning to be narrowed and not deep. This happen due to the curriculum designedemphasize the students to learn for examination not for inculcate and increasetheir thinking skill. Teacher who use this approach usually deliver the knowledge in theform of notes to make it easy for students to memorize the subject content.
Unfortunately, students cannot discuss with their friends regarding thesubtopic taught by the teacher through the use of this method. Students alsogot less encouragement from teacher to give their opinion during the lesson.Hence, they learning will fully depends on teacher. They are only jot down thenotes wrote by the teacher on the whiteboard without having their ownadditional notes and do the task given by their teacher and not doingadditional exercise on their own effort. For them to perform in their study,they just read the notes or certain topic given by teacher as the topics willcome out in exam (Nasarudin, 2015). KBAT becomes less performed in school also due to teachers are lessexposed to knowledge and skills to apply KBAT. It cause them not understandingKBAT as a whole.
David & Ambotangalso confirmed in their study that lack of knowledge and exposure to KBAT isthe cause that hinder the success of KBAT. Zarin et al., and Zakaria (as citedin Othman & Kasim, 2017) had justified in their study towards PendidikanIslam teacher that teachers’ use of teaching aids shows the needs for exposeKBAT more to teachers is not enough and need to be improved as David andAmbotang said that source of teaching is limited. If the source for aids toteach the students is not enough, it will affect students’ exploration on theirlearning of subject matter to become limited because the sources are lessvariety and getting less interesting. Rajendran (2001) in his research on teachers’ readiness inimplement KBAT in teaching and learning process found out that teachers arehighly confident on their pedagogical skill to teach subject content in classthe way they usually do compare to pedagogical skill to teach through the useof higher order thinking (as cited in Nasarudin,2015).
Teachers are better in their pedagogical skill to teach subject contentbecause they are trained since they were in their higher education. But toteach higher order thinking is another thing. They need to have the capabilityand enough capacity that qualifies them to teach the students. They need to becreative, innovative and contented with deeper knowledge. All thesecharacteristics will help them to fit themselves to 21st centuryclassroom. More over, their challenge is bigger that they need to educate KBATor higher order thinking skill to the students that among them are passive anddependant.
However, teachers’ attention towards improvingKBAT among students is a bit hindered by additional work assigned for them. Forthis matter, Anwar (2017) said that teachers must be brought together into theplanning of their students’ education. Teacher is the one who always spend timewith their students in classroom. Anwar (2017) also highlight that teachers’role suppose to be focus on sharing their knowledge with students. Instead,they are added with continues load of work. Lots of task such as administrativework, insert report and data online and organizing school activities causeteachers’ work that suppose to develop students’ thinking is hindered.
Theproblem that they face in an ongoing effort to educate the students are notbeing listened and action is not taken to help these teachers solve theirproblem. This will affect their motivation to teach the students as theirspirit to keep educate the students becomes decrease. Teachers then put lessappreciation and practice on KBAT as they have limited time cause to lack oftraining and development to increase their skill on teaching thinking skill tostudents as David and Ambotang have highlight that teachers’ lack of trainingand continues development on their skill is one of the factor of inefficientimplementation KBAT.Therefore, the planning for KBAT implementationneed to have further thorough analysis. Ghazali believe that students need tobe tested from KBAR to KBAT. If students fail to master KBAR, it would beharder for them to better their KBAT. Student who not master KBAR will not haveenough knowledge to be used in KBAT (Ghazali, 2016). Nor Hisyam in hadmention that the factor that cause the difficulties to apply KBAT in classroomis poor planning in teaching that cause the failure in helping teacher to makedecision about students’ needs (Adam, 2015).
However, teachers’ teaching today gives challengein using the new way of approach and students’ learning. The obscurity on KBATitself creates the challenge. Support in term of infrastructure in classroom,students’ different level of intelligence, lack of money support and parents’support hinder the execution of KBAT to run smoothly as a whole because thoseare also the important elements that contributes KBAT execution. For example,not all parents will participate or involve in teachers’ effort and event todevelop the students which is their children. When they not involve in schools’program that need their participation and help, it means they give less supportto school to improve their childrens’ education particularly on KBAT (KBAT keperluan pendidikan abad 21, 2016). Some parents todayalways come up with an issue that shows their unsatisfaction towards the wayteacher educate their children in school.
As a parents, it is better thatparents and teacher co-operate and collaborate in the activity that can helpthe students to improve their performance in school. It gives benefit to theparents as they can know their children activity at school.Minister of Education, Datuk Seri Mahdzir Khalidaffirmed that KBAT in school will better for the next three years because KBATcannot be expected to succeed in a short timeline.
KBAT is process and it needstime for the process to meet the outcomes. The failure of KBAT implementationdoes not because of teacher, students or system because KBAT is a process. Thusto achieve the objective of KBAT, teachers need to be trained continously toreally understand KBAT implementation as a whole (Bernama, 2017)KBAT approach can be better with the substantialsupport from parents and other member of education especially from thehigher-ups because kBAT itself has its strength to transform the education intothe next level. In KBAT, the element of application and innovation helpsstudents to be proactive and be competitive with people around them. KBATpositive influence is that students will be confident with their point of viewand able to make their own decision. As a whole, KBAT helps students to beindependent in their learning.
Before KBAT is executed, students depends ontheir teacher in their learning but today KBAT teach them to be responsiblewith their knowledge (KBAT keperluan pendidikan abad 21, 2016).KBAT need the practice of thinking to be made as aculture in school. Thinking practice continuity is crucial so that studentslater will brave enough to point out their opinion and their state of mindduring the lesson. If teacher use traditional method to teach students, teachermay not know the current state of students’ mind yet what students have in mindis important for teacher to know so that teacher can re-check their teachingand improve their teaching and communication with the students. The culture ofthinking skills can be done by create an awareness to the importance ofthinking skill, change the mind set and practice (sadon, n.d.).
As PPPM introduced KBAT in education, itsexpectation to succeed need a long term of execution. To achieve the aim ofPPPM, all parties need to work together especially teachers. Teachers need to prepare themselves with knowledge and skillsneeded together with the new practices of teaching and learning that relevantto the development and needs of 21st century.Therefore, it is actually less of teacher preparednesstowards the KBAT implementation in classroom. But it is not teachers’ faultthat students are unable to grasp the concept of KBAT itself according to theirsubject matter. It is just teachers need time and more training so that theycan gradually master on KBAT concept and its suitable way of teaching method to be applied in classroom.