Mercantilism is intended to function as an
economy by which a nation, such as England or Great Britain gains colonies
throughout the world. Those colonies only existed to supply the mother country
with wealth. The colonies produced agricultural goods and raw materials,
English merchants brought these goods and materials to England. Goods and
materials would either be re-exported or manufactured into finished products. Great
Britain could resell the raw materials to other European countries for a huge
William of Orange led a quick and nearly
bloodless takeover, and King James II was overthrown in an event called the
Glorious Revolution by its supporters. The Glorious Revolution created
rebellions by Protestant colonists in Massachusetts, Maryland, and New York.
The new monarchs refused to restore the old Puritan-dominated government of
Massachusetts Bay, instead creating in 1692 a new royal colony. In Maryland,
the uprising had economic as well as religious causes. In New York, a Dutchman
named Jacob Leisler led the rebellion against the Dominion of New England.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 began a
new era in the politics of both England and its American colonies. In England, William
and Mary ruled as constitutional monarchs; overseas, they promoted an empire
based on commerce. They accepted the overthrow of James’s disastrous Dominion
of New England and allowed Massachusetts and New York to resume
Atlantic system comprised the Spanish colonies in South and Central America,
the Portuguese colony of Brazil, the sugar-producing islands of the Caribbean,
West Africa, and the southern colonies in North America. Its most well-known
products were silver, sugar, tobacco, African slaves, and, after 1800, cotton. In
the South Atlantic world system, slavery was vital as a source of labor.
Millions of Native American people had died because they lacked resistance to
diseases introduced to the area. Quite a few Europeans migrated to the New
World until the late 18th century, providing few workers for new industries. It
shaped the development of various colonies because some colonies were more
suitable to the plantation agriculture due to climate and location.
British colonial policy during the reigns of
George I and George the II allowed for this rise of American self-government as
royal bureaucrats, pleased by growing trade and import duties, relaxed their
supervision of internal colonial affairs. By supplying supporters with
appointments and incomes, Walpole won parliamentary approval for his policies.
The consequences the British policy of salutary neglect had was, it weakened
the empire by undermining the legitimacy of the political system. To preserve
American liberty, the colonists improved the powers of the representative
assemblies, unintentionally laying the foundation for the American independence
the 18th century, the American colonies began to use self-governance, and
realized that they could prosper without help from Britain. After the Glorious Revolution, colonies had more independence and
took after Whigs developing colonial assemblies. Therefore, the British ruled more moderately. They used mercy
known as salutary neglect to strengthen their political organizations. If England
threatened or executed trade on the New World, the colonists were in a position
to challenge the rules of the Mercantilist System. Consequently, a rise in
colonial autonomy began in the 18th century.