Menopause ends. Its onset is 40s and late 60s.

Menopause is the ending
stage of periods.it occurs in the midlife of women, due to deficiency of
estrogen hormone or progesterone. it is the cease or end of menstruation and
fertility. Every women experience this change after the end of menstruation.
The change occurs when the women reaches at the age of 40 or 50 and has not
menstruated for a year. The periods can become unbalanced, some becoming longer
and some becoming shorter. A woman is in
perimenopause until she has not menstruated for 12 months. There are two types
of menopause;

Peri-menopause:

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            It is a phase close to menopause.  Peri-menopause means “around the menopause” It
include 12 months to pass before we can say that menopause has occur.It also
includes the time period when the symptoms of menopause start to appear. A women
experience symptoms like hot flushes, change in mood and sleep during peri
menopause, or other symptoms for a year before her periods start to change.
Hormone fluctuations can become more obvious during peri-menopause. Its onset
is 40-50.

Post-menopause:

            Post-menopause is a state when a
women have not experience menstruation for a year. It is phase when periods completely
ends. Its onset is 40s and late 60s.

Different
studies conducted on menopause describe Most of the women face
psychological distress and changes because of the menopause. The basic purpose
of this study is to explore the association between psychological symptoms,low
level of self-respect, stress ,anxiety ,depression and life quality of women
with post-menopause. Results of different studies  have been shown that life quality of post-menopausal
women is lower than premenopausal women and psychological conflicts, stress,
depression and anxiety is higher in women with post menopause.

The other study states
menopause are a natural
period of physiological adaptation. This results in the decreasement in
reproduction of hormones and could be mild.some women may face many
psychological problems but some may not.The basic purpose of this study is to
assess health challenges and psychological effects in a rural area of Nigeria
of middle aged women. The total sample is 120 women age 40 to 55 years .The
descriptive survey was used in the form of questionnaire. The results have been
shown that most of the women with menopause experiences psychological distress
and challenges. They also face nocturnal sweats, low libido, weightgain, giddiness
and many heart problems.Women should be educated enough prior to this period.

The menopausal phase is very important in women
because it is a phase or change that effect their social, psychological and
emotional health. As a result sleep problems, chronic fatigue, sadness
feelings, hopelessness, emptiness, irritability, withdrawal with society, dysphoria
and changes in appetite could be occurred. It can affect the thinking way,
concentration and judgmental abilities. It is a major transitional phase of
reproduction as eggs could not be produced in ovaries and naturally a woman is
not capable to get pregnant. Women use problem focused, appraisal focused and
emotion focused strategies during menopausal period to cope with stress. 100
women were selected as a sample. Results have been shown that 55% women face
mild problems and 78% women adapted the strategies to overcome the stress and post-menopausal
women face more psychological problems.   

This study is
conducted in srilanka. this study investigate about the reason of menopause and
effect on women of srilanka. Menopause is a step of a woman’s life when
hormonal changes cause menstruation to stop permanently. Totally, women face 34
different symptoms of menopause. Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several
tools, and can be affected by various demographic factors. The objective of
this study is to undergo a survey of the symptoms and awareness associated with
menopause among Sri Lankan academic women from the age 25 to 60. By using MRS
(Menopause Rating Scale) questionnaire, 50 Sri Lankan women aged 25-60 years
were interviewed to document of 10 symptoms divided into somatic, psychological
and physiological symptoms which are commonly associated with menopause. The
mean age of menopause was 52 years (range 47 – 56 years). The general symptoms
reported were joint and muscular pains (76%); physical and mental exhaustion
(58%); and concentration and sleeping problems (60%) followed by symptoms of
hot flushes and night sweating (66%); irritability (64%); itching in private
parts (68%); anxiety (92%); depressive mood (80%).. The prevalence of menopausal
symptoms was measured using modified MRS in this study. Very few studies have
been undertaken regarding the importance of women’s awareness level about the
menopause occurrence in their mental, psychological, and physical health,
therefore this research finding will contribute to the available body of
knowledge in this area.

The knowledge about
menopausal symptoms and its affects is necessary for women prior to menopause.Peri-
and post-menopause women experience a extensive variety of menopause symptoms,
and their lifestyle patterns and physical, psychological, social and spiritual
adaptation directly affecting elderly health improvement are considerably
crucial. Many menopausal women worry about losing their womanhood and
attractiveness after menopause, and may suffer from the physical symptoms of
menopause. While, peri-menopausal women
may experience a sense of hurt and worthlessness after they stop giving values
to parental roles as their children grow and become independent. Women
experiencing postmenopausal changes can lead a richer life by looking at life
in a optimistic or positive perspective as an chance for inner mellowness. And postmenopausal women at midlife
experience different problems and difficulty in adapting to climacteric changes
has a direct effect on elderly women’s health, health-promoting lifestyle
patterns and psychological adaptation have been considered as important issues.
Middle-aged women with more knowledge of menopause could manage menopause
better, than those having negative attitudes toward menopause were established negative
menopause symptoms Midlife women with severe menopause symptoms were more
likely to have a worse quality of life

Menopause age is
constant a rise in life probability has resulted in an increase of the
menopause period in women.  This study
was done to assess women’s awareness level about symptoms and complications of
menopause and methods of their prevention..

One billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience
of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural
setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach
changes in this phase of life. Although it is essential to provide
appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have
so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide.
Hot flushes and night sweats are the strongest symptoms of those reported by
women affected by the fluctuations experienced throughout menopause. Positive
`or negative ways in which each woman approaches the changes during menopause
are influenced by their personal, family and socioeconomic background.
Menopause is a vital life event that
may have a negative effect on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely
used in occupational health, can foresee both future damage and duration of
sickness absence. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of menopausal
symptoms on work ability.

Cognitive changes and mood instability are common symptoms described by
menopausal women, the degree to which the decay in estrogen production is
responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen
may produce its effects on cognition and mood through variation of serotonergic
function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan depletion (TD)
paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically manipulated
estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual and
combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotion
processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly early
postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermal
estradiol 75-150 ug/d administrationThese results provide preliminary evidence
that serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on brain
activation during working memory and affective processing.

Descriptive design was used in this
study as a method. 90 women were took from department of gynecology and their
age range was between the 40 to 60 years.

Results showed that hot flushes,
dissatisfied personal life, poor memory, change in desires of sex and low
backache were the most major and sever symptoms of physical, psychosocial and
vasomotor domains. There are many diseases that directly attack on women’ s
heath. Menopause is the main major factor of diseases. Most of the women ignore
their health related issue. Key and major aspect is to make preventions of such
diseases.

The basic aim of this study was to
investigate the 11 major diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes
mellitus, vasomotor symptoms, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, cancer, depression and
sleep disturbances. This study is a prospective study and was conducted in
department of OBGYN in Nepal. This study has 3 main objectives, to see the
menopausal age, middle life health issues of females and to measure the
prevalence rate of women with menopausal issues.

500 women were conduct in this study and
they all were interviewed in 10 months and their age range was 45 to 60 years
old. In this study, slandered questionnaire was administered to women after
conducted their clinical examination and history and MRS (rating scale of
menopause) used to measure the menopausal scores. Mean of the menopause was
49.9%. After the results, the symptoms of physical menopause were the most
common in women and the MRS score was 16.

Our study is aimed to
examine the impact of menopause on women work ability and their leve of anxiety.
Menopause has many physical and psychological effects. It is a state of
hormonal changes. Hormonal changes have great effect on physical and psychological
health.

This study describes the major health
related issues of women with peri and post menopause. This study precise the
risk factor and make interventions for improvement of menopausal health.