Menopause is the endingstage of periods.
it occurs in the midlife of women, due to deficiency ofestrogen hormone or progesterone. it is the cease or end of menstruation andfertility. Every women experience this change after the end of menstruation.The change occurs when the women reaches at the age of 40 or 50 and has notmenstruated for a year. The periods can become unbalanced, some becoming longerand some becoming shorter. A woman is inperimenopause until she has not menstruated for 12 months. There are two typesof menopause;Peri-menopause: It is a phase close to menopause. Peri-menopause means “around the menopause” Itinclude 12 months to pass before we can say that menopause has occur.
It alsoincludes the time period when the symptoms of menopause start to appear. A womenexperience symptoms like hot flushes, change in mood and sleep during perimenopause, or other symptoms for a year before her periods start to change.Hormone fluctuations can become more obvious during peri-menopause. Its onsetis 40-50.Post-menopause: Post-menopause is a state when awomen have not experience menstruation for a year.
It is phase when periods completelyends. Its onset is 40s and late 60s.Differentstudies conducted on menopause describe Most of the women facepsychological distress and changes because of the menopause. The basic purposeof this study is to explore the association between psychological symptoms,lowlevel of self-respect, stress ,anxiety ,depression and life quality of womenwith post-menopause. Results of different studies have been shown that life quality of post-menopausalwomen is lower than premenopausal women and psychological conflicts, stress,depression and anxiety is higher in women with post menopause.The other study statesmenopause are a naturalperiod of physiological adaptation. This results in the decreasement inreproduction of hormones and could be mild.
some women may face manypsychological problems but some may not.The basic purpose of this study is toassess health challenges and psychological effects in a rural area of Nigeriaof middle aged women. The total sample is 120 women age 40 to 55 years .
Thedescriptive survey was used in the form of questionnaire. The results have beenshown that most of the women with menopause experiences psychological distressand challenges. They also face nocturnal sweats, low libido, weightgain, giddinessand many heart problems.Women should be educated enough prior to this period.The menopausal phase is very important in womenbecause it is a phase or change that effect their social, psychological andemotional health.
As a result sleep problems, chronic fatigue, sadnessfeelings, hopelessness, emptiness, irritability, withdrawal with society, dysphoriaand changes in appetite could be occurred. It can affect the thinking way,concentration and judgmental abilities. It is a major transitional phase ofreproduction as eggs could not be produced in ovaries and naturally a woman isnot capable to get pregnant.
Women use problem focused, appraisal focused andemotion focused strategies during menopausal period to cope with stress. 100women were selected as a sample. Results have been shown that 55% women facemild problems and 78% women adapted the strategies to overcome the stress and post-menopausalwomen face more psychological problems. This study isconducted in srilanka. this study investigate about the reason of menopause andeffect on women of srilanka. Menopause is a step of a woman’s life whenhormonal changes cause menstruation to stop permanently. Totally, women face 34different symptoms of menopause. Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by severaltools, and can be affected by various demographic factors.
The objective ofthis study is to undergo a survey of the symptoms and awareness associated withmenopause among Sri Lankan academic women from the age 25 to 60. By using MRS(Menopause Rating Scale) questionnaire, 50 Sri Lankan women aged 25-60 yearswere interviewed to document of 10 symptoms divided into somatic, psychologicaland physiological symptoms which are commonly associated with menopause. Themean age of menopause was 52 years (range 47 – 56 years).
The general symptomsreported were joint and muscular pains (76%); physical and mental exhaustion(58%); and concentration and sleeping problems (60%) followed by symptoms ofhot flushes and night sweating (66%); irritability (64%); itching in privateparts (68%); anxiety (92%); depressive mood (80%).. The prevalence of menopausalsymptoms was measured using modified MRS in this study. Very few studies havebeen undertaken regarding the importance of women’s awareness level about themenopause occurrence in their mental, psychological, and physical health,therefore this research finding will contribute to the available body ofknowledge in this area.The knowledge aboutmenopausal symptoms and its affects is necessary for women prior to menopause.Peri-and post-menopause women experience a extensive variety of menopause symptoms,and their lifestyle patterns and physical, psychological, social and spiritualadaptation directly affecting elderly health improvement are considerablycrucial.
Many menopausal women worry about losing their womanhood andattractiveness after menopause, and may suffer from the physical symptoms ofmenopause. While, peri-menopausal womenmay experience a sense of hurt and worthlessness after they stop giving valuesto parental roles as their children grow and become independent. Womenexperiencing postmenopausal changes can lead a richer life by looking at lifein a optimistic or positive perspective as an chance for inner mellowness. And postmenopausal women at midlifeexperience different problems and difficulty in adapting to climacteric changeshas a direct effect on elderly women’s health, health-promoting lifestylepatterns and psychological adaptation have been considered as important issues.Middle-aged women with more knowledge of menopause could manage menopausebetter, than those having negative attitudes toward menopause were established negativemenopause symptoms Midlife women with severe menopause symptoms were morelikely to have a worse quality of lifeMenopause age isconstant a rise in life probability has resulted in an increase of themenopause period in women. This studywas done to assess women’s awareness level about symptoms and complications ofmenopause and methods of their prevention.
.One billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experienceof menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the socioculturalsetting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approachchanges in this phase of life. Although it is essential to provideappropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews haveso far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide.Hot flushes and night sweats are the strongest symptoms of those reported bywomen affected by the fluctuations experienced throughout menopause. Positive`or negative ways in which each woman approaches the changes during menopauseare influenced by their personal, family and socioeconomic background.Menopause is a vital life event thatmay have a negative effect on quality of life.
Work ability, a concept widelyused in occupational health, can foresee both future damage and duration ofsickness absence. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of menopausalsymptoms on work ability. Cognitive changes and mood instability are common symptoms described bymenopausal women, the degree to which the decay in estrogen production isresponsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogenmay produce its effects on cognition and mood through variation of serotonergicfunction.
To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan depletion (TD)paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically manipulatedestrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual andcombined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotionprocessing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly earlypostmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functionalmagnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermalestradiol 75-150 ug/d administrationThese results provide preliminary evidencethat serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on brainactivation during working memory and affective processing.Descriptive design was used in thisstudy as a method.
90 women were took from department of gynecology and theirage range was between the 40 to 60 years.Results showed that hot flushes,dissatisfied personal life, poor memory, change in desires of sex and lowbackache were the most major and sever symptoms of physical, psychosocial andvasomotor domains. There are many diseases that directly attack on women’ sheath. Menopause is the main major factor of diseases. Most of the women ignoretheir health related issue. Key and major aspect is to make preventions of suchdiseases. The basic aim of this study was toinvestigate the 11 major diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders, diabetesmellitus, vasomotor symptoms, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, cancer, depression andsleep disturbances. This study is a prospective study and was conducted indepartment of OBGYN in Nepal.
This study has 3 main objectives, to see themenopausal age, middle life health issues of females and to measure theprevalence rate of women with menopausal issues. 500 women were conduct in this study andthey all were interviewed in 10 months and their age range was 45 to 60 yearsold. In this study, slandered questionnaire was administered to women afterconducted their clinical examination and history and MRS (rating scale ofmenopause) used to measure the menopausal scores. Mean of the menopause was49.9%.
After the results, the symptoms of physical menopause were the mostcommon in women and the MRS score was 16.Our study is aimed toexamine the impact of menopause on women work ability and their leve of anxiety.Menopause has many physical and psychological effects. It is a state ofhormonal changes. Hormonal changes have great effect on physical and psychologicalhealth.
This study describes the major healthrelated issues of women with peri and post menopause. This study precise therisk factor and make interventions for improvement of menopausal health.