memorandum binding, depending on the context. meqteb?(alt. sp. of

memorandum of understanding (MOU)?A simple,
semi-formal written agreement between two parties showing agreement on general
or specific matters. It may or may not be legally binding, depending on the

meqteb?(alt. sp. of maktab) An elementary

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merchant bank?In its
literal sense, a merchant bank is one whose purpose is to facilitate
the trade in and financing of commodities; however, this meaning is
slightly outdated as merchant banks offer a full range of services to businesses, so they are
more likely to be defined by what they are not – that is, a retail bank, dealing
with members of the public – than what they are. They are also establishments
which can act as advisers to business due to their in-depth knowledge of

merger?The joining
together of two or more companies, often with one of them being a
dominant party. Even though a merger is technically a joining together of two
similarly sized companies, in practice this rarely happens, and the partnership
is called a merger rather than an acquisition
simply to avoid the negative implications of being ‘taken over’. Mergers can
sometimes be defined as acquisitions which are in both companies’ best
interests, for example, where a smaller company has specialist expertise and a
larger one has a more powerful market position; in this situation the sharing
of knowledge and liquidity with which to maximise it are mutually beneficial,
even though in strict terms it is the wealthier party that has acquired the
innovative one. ‘Mergers and acquisitions’ is a phrase which is often used, and
this is a reflection of the blurring of the boundaries between the two.

Messenger?In Qur’anic terms, a
messenger is a prophet.
The Prophet Muhammad is sometimes
referred to as the Messenger of God,
although messengers appear at various points in Islamic history. Other messengers
include Adam, Noah, Abraham, David (the Psalms are considered his scripture),
Solomon, Moses (who brought the Torah), Jesus (the Gospels
are considered his scripture) and Muhammad (who brought the Qur’an). The belief
in messengers is the fourth Article
of Faith. The Qur’an states (10:47) that a rusul has been
sent to every spiritual community (ummah). All
messengers call humanity to worship the one God and renounce evil. Muslims are
asked to believe in all the messengers. The Islamic testimony of faith (shahadah) comprises
witnessing the oneness of God and the fact that Muhammad is God’s messenger.

Middle East?The Middle
East is a region of the world roughly encompassing North East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but
its ‘boundaries’ such as they are can also be stretched or contracted depending
on the context or perhaps the political intent of the speaker. For example,
some people would consider Iran, Turkey, Libya, Cyprus and even Pakistan as
Middle Eastern nations, whereas many would dispute this assertion. It is
probably true to say that the Middle East is composed of Muslim dominated nations (and Israel),
and this could account for the extended view of its boundaries. The term itself
is not accepted by all, as it puts Europe, or at least the Greenwich Meridian
(an arbitrary line), at the ‘centre’ of the world, and all other countries
measured by their position in relation to it (as in the Far East). However,
since most people accept this arbitrary line of meridian, the term ‘Middle
East’ is not considered particularly controversial.

mihrab?An arch in
the wall of a mosque
that indicates the qiblah,
or the direction of Mecca,
the city towards which Muslims
face when they are at prayer.