Many relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions

Many
studies have described aspects of teaching practices, which are related to
effective classroom learning and student outcomes (Campbell, Kyriakides, Muijs,
and Robinson, 2004; Prosser, M., and Trigwell, 1997; Campbell
et al., 2000; Jarvis, 2006). Instructional practices depend on what lecturers
bring to the classroom. Professional competence considered as  an vital factor in classroom and learning
practices (Shulman, 1986, Campbell et al., 2004; Scheunpflug, Baumert, and Kunter,
2006; Jarvis, 2006).

The
issue of teaching in the education literature is discussed from the point of
view of the transferring from theory to teaching practices (De Corte, 2000;
Defazio, 2006, Randi and Corno, 2007). In the development of constructivism,
Merrill adopted the idea of transferring teaching from theory to teaching
practices to identify the normative principles that are common to the different
theories. A principle is defined as a relationship that is always true under
appropriate conditions regardless of the methods or models that implement this
principle (Merrill, 2009). The principles themselves are not a model or method
of instruction, but relationships that can be the basis of any model or method.
These principles can be implemented in a variety of ways by different models
and methods of instruction. However, the effectiveness, efficiency and
commitment of a model or method of instruction are a functions of the degree to
which these principles are applied. Merrill (2002) states that a principle describes
a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program
or practices. The principles of the methods are different, they are “the means
to facilitate learning” (Reigeluth, 1999). For methods to effectively
bring about student learning, it must be based on the principles that describe
a real relationship. The five principles included real-world problems or tasks,
activation, demonstration, application and integration.

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Rasch
model (RM) is generally the same as measurement of a parameter in IRT or also
known as Latin Trait Theory (LTT) (Dawis, 1987; Bond and Fox, 2007). The RM is
a mathematical formula that specifies the form of the relationship between
items that operationalize one construct. This model is not primarily concerned
about total scores and not all items are treated as equal contributions to total
score. That is, difficult items are weighted more highly than easier items when
estimating level of knowledge ability. In addition, the RM focuses on the
pattern of item responses. A conceptual starting point is the assertion that
some people have more attributes being measured than others, and some items
require more of it to be completed successfully (Wright and Masters, 1982; Linacre, 2002; Liu, 2010; Bond and
Fox, 2007).

Developing
the researcher’s own instrument requires knowledge about item or question construction,
scale development, format, length, validity and reliability of the instrument
and its scores (Sekran, 2003; Calmorin et al., 2008; Wilkinson and Birmingham,
2003; Creswell, 2012; Johnson and Christensen, 2012). Thus, this study
used Rasch model analysis to test validity and reliability of the developed instrument
as a measurable instrument for Leafcutter’s Teaching Practices.