Lodge’s basis and this also swayed their opinion as

Lodge’s extract allows you to comprehend the
deeper attitudes towards immigration during the 1890’s and the challenges in
which many immigrant had been faced with. The purpose of this document is to
highlight the hatred and anger Lodge had towards immigration as well as delving
in to the deeper importance of the negative attitudes towards immigration and
the real reason for this. It is important to understand that much of this
period was seen by the influx of immigration into the USA. Hall (1904) states
that ‘From 1821, when statistics were first kept, to 1900, a total of
19,115,221 immigrants has come to our shores’ 1this created the  rise of the ‘anti-immigrant feeling’ amongst
many. In order to investigate the attitudes towards immigration during the
1890’s this essay will provide a brief nature of the reasons for the hatred
towards immigrants in particular: Chinese, Irish and German. Henry was a member
of the Immigration Restriction League and much of his career focused on passing
a series of legislations which made the lives of immigrants much tougher. It
can be argued that the 1890’s was a heightened period in which the US society
was deeply divided amongst the immigrants and White Anglo Saxon Protestants .The
importance of his passage was that this was a popular magazine entry in which
many American would read on a daily basis and this also swayed their opinion as
it created an bad impression on immigrant. For many Americans this created the
impression that immigrant were seen as a threat and ‘undue competition’.2The magazine extract allows you to identify the
reasons behind Lodge’s passage in which
he expresses his hatred and anger towards immigrants. When delving deeper into
the passage it almost portrays Lodge to carry out his, anti-immigrant feeling’
and it is evidently clear that Lodge saw immigrant as a threat. Anderson (2010)
argues ‘while natives complain that their new immigrants take jobs and harm the
nation’s culture’ 3
this is reflected throughout the passage as Lodge expresses his negative views
on immigrants as he refers to them as ‘undue competition’4, however it is evidently
clear is that the reason as to why Lodge speaks so down upon the immigrants is
because he sees them as a threat to the economy and the people. A flaw of this
extract is that the reason for Lodge speaking so negatively about the
immigrants is because he is reinforcing the traditional White Anglo Saxon
Protestant values as well as giving the impression to the magazine readers (Americans)
that these are the people they should be aware of. He clearly differentiates
the immigrants amongst the Americans and his passage re-emphasises them to have
an inferior position within society. Lodge had a way of alluding these
immigrants and this was by referring to them as ‘beasts’, ‘very low order of
intelligence’ and ‘habits are vicious’ 5these negative connotations
of the immigrants allow the Americans to believe that Lodge is truthful in
saying that these are people of lower class as well as of an inferior position.
Schrag (2010) claims that ‘this new class of immigrants was also predominantly
and visibly poor’ 6for
many this was an impression of the immigrants as many believed they could never
really assimilate into the American society. 
Lodge passage includes the theme of hatred,
assimilation and discrimination amongst immigrants within US society. During
this period USA was presented as a society which had been deeply divided
especially amongst immigrants and the Native
Americans. The passage itself heightens Lodge’s hatred for the immigrants
as he lists the problems they are causing to society as he believes they are
‘disturbing labour markets’ and that for many it was ‘very difficult to
The extract signifies the discrimination that many of the immigrations had
faced especially the Chinese with the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1897.
Lodge himself was heavily involved in passing a series of act to restrict
immigrants coming into the USA. A cartoon in particular ‘The Only One Barred
Out’ highlights the attack on the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.8 The cartoon highlights
that not all Americans were ‘anti-immigrant’ however Lodge states that
‘prohibiting all immigrants’ was seen to be ‘indiscrimate’.9 This can be argued as
‘ignorance’ from Lodge as prohibiting immigrants based on their ethinic,race or
colour is evidently seen to be discriminate, however he is almost justifying
this as a norm. Higham (1956) claims that ‘any restrictive policy, moreover inevitably
entails discrimination’ 10this is distinctly true as
any of the policy which had been passed or that were attempting to pass
ultimately discriminated against immigrants and therefore it can be argued that
Lodge passage highlights discrimination against immigrants.    The significance of the nature of the document is
that the date in which the magazine entry had been published held great
importance as before and after 1891 a series of legislations had been passed.
Some of which being the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1892, Immigration Act 1924 and
well as the passing of other laws. Lodge himself played an influential role as
Schrag (2010) states that ‘In Congress he carried the agenda of the Immigration
Restriction League’11 further suggesting that
he was part of a political organisation. This organisation represented an
‘anti-immigrant feeling’, however would appeal to the vast American people as
they are argued that these immigrants were essentially taking the role of the
American people. Lodge states ‘They did not come here with the intention of
becoming citizens; their whole purpose being accumulate by parsimonious…’ 12further implying as well
as convincing the American people to believe that these immigrants were infact
taking over their roles. Lodge uses powerful language throughout the passage to
form a hatred towards the immigrants as his description of the immigrants
create an inhuman character. To some extent you could argue that Lodge is
successful in convincing the American people in believing that immigrants have
taken over America the way in which he has done this is by appealing to all
American people and arguing that it is ‘very difficult for them to assimilate’.
Fleegler (2013) argued ‘Believing that the newcomers who had arrived since the
1880’s could not be integrated into American culture’ this was infact a popular
belief in which many had held with immigrants.14This magazine entry creates
the impression that to ‘prohibit all immigration’ 15would make a better life
for the American people and ultimately they do not belong in US society.The real historical debate amongst historians was
the extent as which immigrants integrate within American Society. Many have
argued that they cannot assimilate into US society which further enhances that
attitudes towards immigration during the 1890’s was rather negative and for
many they were seen as ‘outsiders’. Infact the historiographical debate over
issues within the source are too raised by Lodge he argues that ‘no amount of
effort would improve their morals or Americanise this class of immigrants’ 16this implies that the
1890’s was a period whereby immigrant faced hardship and Lodge believes that
the immigrants cannot fit within the US society. Gyory (1998) claims that it
‘seemed reluctant to “assimilate” into American society’ 17and infact Americans were
unwilling to integrate and allow immigrants to fit into society. This is
remotely evident throughout Lodge’s passage as he distinguishes immigrants from
the American people and almost categories them. An argument which can be formed
is that the reason for these immigrants not assimilating within US society was
because firstly because the American people were unwilling as well as the fact
that further laws made it incredibly harder for immigrants to adjust to the
American way of life. Tempo (2011) argues ‘rise of restrictionist immigration
policies in the United States’ as this made the lives of immigrants harder and
attitudes towards immigration also began to become a lot more negative
especially after the 1890’s.18To conclude, it is evidently clear that the
period of the 1890’s was one which America had experienced an influx of
immigrants as well as attitudes towards immigrants becoming progressively
worse. This ultimately sheds a light on the 1890’s and the hardships immigrants
had been faced with and Lodge’s passage highlights the negative attitudes
towards immigrants as the debate amongst historians emphasises that even though
they did not assimilate within the American society they couldn’t as within
America there was the ‘anti-immigrant feeling’ and for many they were regarded
as ‘unwelcomed’.

1 Hall, P. F. (1904). Selection of
Immigration. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
Science, 24(1), 169-184. doi:10.1177/000271620402400111. Pg.4

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The Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

Anderson,S. (2010). History of the immigration to
the United States. Immigration (pp 1-24). Santa Barbara: Greenwood.pg.1


4 The Modern World.AFH1028. Module
Handbook, 2017-2018

5 The Modern World.AFH1028. Module
Handbook, 2017-2018

6 Schrag, P. (2010). Not fit for our society:
immigration and nativism in America. Berkeley, Calif: University of California
Press Berkeley, Calif. ; London.pg.52

7 The Modern World.AFH1028. Module
Handbook, 2017-2018

8 Library of Congress. (1882). The Only One
Barred Out. Retrieved from

9 The Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

10 Higham, J. (1956). American Immigration Policy in
Historical Perspective. Law and Contemporary Problems, 21(2), 213-235.pg.2

11 Schrag, P. (2010). Not fit for our society:
immigration and nativism in America. Berkeley, Calif: University of
California Press Berkeley, Calif.; London.pg.57

12The Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

13The Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

Fleegler, L. Robert (2013). Ellis Island Nation:
Immigration Policy and American Identity in the Twentieth Century.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc.

Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

Modern World.AFH1028. Module Handbook, 2017-2018

17 Gyory, A. (1998). Closing the Gate: Race, Politics
and the Chinese Exclusion Act (1st ed.). Chapel Hill: The University of
North Carolina Press.

18 Tempo, C. B. (2011). The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race, and the
Progressive Era Literacy Test Debate (Book Review). Journal of American
Studies, 45(3). doi :10.1017/S0021875811000612. Pg.2