LiteratureReview Machinery has always been a big part of construction. TheEgyptians used crane like machinery that would have to be manually pulled tocreate the Pyramids. However, now this has been created1 in a broader scale with functioning cranes and other machinery, such asforklifts. The rate ofinnovation in construction equipment is measured by using two variables over a30-year period, 1962–92: The number of new models introduced every year and thetechnological life of eight earthmoving equipment are considered in this study.The findings indicate that the rate of innovation in the construction equipmentindustry increased in the 30-year study period.
The findings also suggest thatthese innovations are incremental in nature, stimulated by technologicaladvances in other industries, but primarily driven by market forces.Technological advances are not confined to the industry that producesinnovations. The mapping of the interindustry flow of innovations highlightsthat while construction companies play a predominant role in generating theirown technological innovations, they are also heavily dependent on otherindustries, such as the construction equipment industry for the flow oftechnical system innovations. As such, the continuous and incrementalinnovations in the construction equipment industry are bound to act as acatalyst for the generation of technological advances in the constructionindustry. (Arditi, 2015)12 How has machinery been used in the Construction industrythrough History? The history of construction and how machines were introducedto the industryMachines were not used in construction until the late1960’s, at this time they used mainly cables and winches.
This meant it was muchharder to do some jobs because more simple machine designs were used, machinessuch as cranes were functioned by just using rope. This was done untilhydraulic systems were put in place this made construction projects much moreefficient. This was when a lot of the old systems were abandoned like the”small cable-operated shovel” for more effective machines. From than thehydraulic system has evolved meaning the machinery in construction hasdeveloped this is because their systems have become almost three timesstronger.
As well as this the accuracy of builds have increased with theimprovement of hydraulic systems this even added to the durability andreliability. (Bennink,N/A) (Anon., n.d.)3 Development of construction machinery After the development of the first hydraulic excavators withgenuine Japanese technology in 1965, HCM Group has been developingindustry-leading technologies and products, such as being the world’s first toequip construction machinery with satellite communication terminals in 2000,and accumulating various core technologies related to construction machinery.
As part of the globalization of the market and changes tothe business environment, there have been large changes in the needs forconstruction equipment and peripheral systems. Up until now systems developmentwas mainly centred on the domain of construction machinery itself and itssupport networks, but these days systems development for total solutionscentred on equipment that is necessary, such as management systems for miningsites and construction sites, and information network systems that connectthose systems to the equipment itself. (N/A, N/A)(N/A, N/A) https://www.
hitachicm.com/global/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/05_en.pdf4 Thissource is very reliable as it is from a book and these normally contain a lotof factual information however I do not have a lot of details on where thesource has come from for example the Author so I cannot research and find outmore about their past work to the validity of their writing.
The source is fromHitachi which is a very well-known company and they will not risk decreasingtheir reputation this will mean they will be talking from a very neutralperspective and write in a genuine way.5 https://www.wiproinfra.com/portuguese/documents/Development_Hydraulics.pdf(Ramesh, N/A)I could not find alot of information on this Author meaning I could not find other reports orarticles from them however many of the points addressed by this source havebeen back from previous sources I have found.
As well as this the source hasbeen produced by Wipro infrastructure engineering this is a well-known company.6 How machines changed in the modern day?Simple machines have combined overtime to form more complexmachines • Developments of internal combustion and compression ignition engineshas replaced humans as source of power for machines. Developments in materials such as rubber,nylon, steel etc., have made mobile machines of today possible.There was atime in the construction industry when all blueprints were made by draftsmenwho drew freehand, when a crew had to build its own scaffolding for theupper-story work, and when finding a foreman at the job site meant sendingrunners to look for him.
Times have changed. Withcomputer-assisted-design software, a plan is changed by clicking a buttoninstead of scrubbing a line with an eraser. Hydraulic equipment carries people,earth and materials with ease. Pagers and two-way cell phones make keeping trackof employees a breeze.https://www.slideshare.net/waleedliaqat/construction-machinery-associated-costs-and-basic-concepts(Liaqat, N/A)7 TheAuthor of this source is in the field of Construction, Architecture and RealEstate and was a student, he now works as an Android Developer at D-Techsystems.
The source is not very reliable as it is not from a person with a lotof experience in the field however a lot of the points made are similar toother sources and seems factual.8 https://www.bizjournals.
com/louisville/stories/2002/12/23/story2.html9 How is machinery used in the construction industry? Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of aboom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the”house”). The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels.
Excavators are also called diggers. Excavators are used in many ways, the digging of trenches, holes, foundations ,material handling , brush cutting with hydraulic attachments, forestry work,demolition, general grading/landscaping , heavy lifting and mining, especially,but not only open-pit mining, river dredging and driving piles. What machinery is used in the construction industry? 10 https://www.slideshare.net/hamo92/5-construction-equipment-building-construction Machineries effects on Safety? People can be struck and injured by moving partsof machinery or ejected material. Parts of the body can also be drawn in ortrapped between rollers, belts and pulley drives.? Sharp edges can cause cuts and severinginjuries, sharp-pointed parts can cause stabbing or puncture the skin, andrough surface parts can cause friction or abrasion.? People can be crushed, both between parts movingtogether or towards a fixed part of the machine, wall or other object, and twoparts moving past one another can cause shearing.
? Parts of the machine, materials and emissions(such as steam or water) can be hot or cold enough to cause burns or scalds andelectricity can cause electrical shock and burns.? Injuries can also occur due to machinerybecoming unreliable and developing faults or when machines are used improperlythrough inexperience or lack of training. PUWERSelect andinstall plant and equipment properly, use it carefully, and make sure it ismaintained to meet the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998.LOLERLiftingequipment and lifting operations are subject to additional requirements, includingperiodic thorough examination, by the Lifting Operations and Lifting EquipmentRegulations 1998.Manufacture & supply of workequipmentBy designand construction all work equipment must be safe and not give rise to risks tohealth when first placed on the market or put into service.Report a defective productHSE andother Market Surveillance Authorities have powers to take action where newproducts are defective. Manufacture & supply of workequipmentBy designand construction all work equipment must be safe and not give rise to risks tohealth when first placed on the market or put into service.http://www.
5.aspxhttp://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/buildinginsafety/health-safety.htm11 Energy and costs There arenumerous possibilities for a more efficient use of energy.
Significant savingscan be realized through the proper selection of components for a machine toolalone. Whether a CNC control should feature energy recovery to line powerdepends on the frequency of tool changing during milling operations orworkpiece changes during turning. The regenerated energy is then available forother consumers in the machine’s environment.http://www.heidenhain.us/resources-and-news/aspects-of-energy-efficiency-in-machine-tools/12 Risks 13 Bycomparison, total worker deaths only increased 0.
3% in 2015, going from 4,821to 4,836. For total private industry worker deaths, there was actually adecrease from 4,386 occupational fatalities in 2014 to 4,379 in 2015, adecrease of 0.15%. The construction industry represented 19.4% of allworker deaths in 2015 and 21.
4% of all private industry worker deaths.The fatal injury rate increasedfrom 9.8 per 100,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers in 2014 to 10.1 in2015. For all workers, the fatal injury rate was relatively unchanged goingfrom 3.
43 per 100,000 FTE in 2014 to 3.38 in 2015. For private industry, therate of fatal occupational injuries dropped from 3.7 per 100,000 FTE in 2014 to3.
6 in 2015.Despite accounting for the highesttotal of worker deaths, the construction industry ranked fourth in highestfatal injury rates among all industries. Agriculture, forestry, fishing andhunting had a fatal injury rate of 22.8 per 100,000 FTE followed by transportationand warehousing at 13.8 and mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction at11.4.Of the four industries with thehighest fatal injury rates, construction was the only one to see an increase inboth fatal occupational injuries counts and rates. The other three industriesall decreased in total deaths and fatal injury rates from 2014 to 2015.
14 15 https://www.constructconnect.com/blog/construction-news/construction-leads-industries-worker-deaths/16 Environmentaleffects of the machinery and development of machinery 17 AirQuality the potential effects on air quality and the related Project inter18 actionsduring construction are overburden disturbance and construction equipmentoperation. These are described in the following subsections.The primary air quality concern during construction is theimpact of particulate matter on the surrounding environment. Particulate emissionsduring the Project construction are associated with land clearing, blasting,excavation, and backfilling operations.The potential effects of particulates is influenced by siteand weather conditions (rain and wind direction) and by preventative measuresimplemented during construction to minimize emissions.
Emissions ofparticulates that exceed air quality guidelines may result in problems on theconstruction site and under special circumstances (such as strong winds) inoff-site areas as well. The generation of particulates at construction sitesdepends on the silt content of the soils being disturbed, the proportion of drydays, operator habits, construction vehicle type and speeds, vehicle weights,and the number of vehicles.https://www.blpc.
u_3517983r_1n_D11%5E23324381.PDF 19 Health effects of exposure from what machinery releases? Respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease andmortality as well as lung cancer? Reduced lung function (especially in children)? There are also very strong links to early onsetdementia and autismHigh air pollution levels can cause immediate health problemsincluding:? Aggravated cardiovascular and respiratoryillness? Added stress to heart and lungs, which must workharder to supply the body with oxygen? Damaged cells in the respiratory systemLong-term exposure to polluted air can have permanent healtheffects such as:? Accelerated aging of the lungs? Loss of lung capacity and decreased lungfunction? Development of diseases such as asthma,bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly cancer? Shortened life spanThose mostsusceptible to severe health problems from air pollution are:? Individuals with heart disease, coronary arterydisease or congestive heart failure? Individuals with lung diseases such as asthma,emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Pregnant women? Outdoor workers? Older adults and the elderly? Children under age 14? Athletes who exercise vigorously outdoorsDisability glare, eye strain, loss of vision andstress that people get from glare and spillovers are worth mentioning. Our eyesnaturally adjust during day and night so we can see things properly. Too muchlight can harm our eyes and also the harm the hormones (such as melatonin) thatdoes this job.20 http://www.
cfm?page=healthoverallhttp://eschooltoday.com/pollution/light-pollution/effects-of-light-pollution.html21 Why is machinery safety important? ? People can be hit and injured by moving parts of machinery orejected material. Parts of the body can also be drawn into or trapped betweenrollers, belts and pulley drives. ?Sharp edges can cause cuts and severing injuries, sharp-pointed parts can stabor puncture the skin, and rough surface parts can cause friction or abrasion. ?People can be crushed either between parts moving together or towards a fixedpart of the machine, wall or other object, and two parts moving past oneanother can cause shearing. ?Parts of the machine, materials and emissions (such as steam or water) can behot or cold enough to cause burns or scalds and electricity can causeelectrical shock and burns.
?Injuries can also occur due to machinery becoming unreliable and developingfaults due to poor or no maintenance or when machines are used improperlythrough inexperience or lack of training.http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg291.pdfhttp://www.
gt-engineering.it/en/Insights/why-machinery-safety-is-so-important22 Short termand long term effects of machinery used in constructionWill theincrease of machinery cause a positive effect( should they be used for morejobs).Long termeffects of use of machinery How canimprovement in machines change constructionHealth effectsof increase of machinery in construction 23 1 (Arditi, 2015) This source is froma Technical paper about the changes in the construction equipment and how itwas introduced, this source is quite reliable as it is a report that has comefrom research and coming to a conclusion.
The function of the website is toprovide journals and reports based on different topics. The website is veryreliable as it has multiple reports and journals and it should be very valid asit uses scientific research. The author of this Technical paper is a graduatefrom a school of architecture and is working with a real estate investment anddevelopment firm which is very well known. (Bennink, N/A)This sourceis from a website that I have not come across often meaning its reliabilityshould lower however The Author is a business graduate and is a field editor atAC business media his responsibilities at him firm is to research and producearticles on equipment and their changes and development so the Author is veryfamiliar with what he is writing as his job relates to the topic so it shouldbe very reliable and valid (Anon., n.d.
)This sourceis from a well know website that explains all the positives and negatives inconstruction and how they can be dealt with, this website is full of statisticsof the construction industry such as the construction jobs rebound andaccidents occurring in construction. So this is a very reliable source that hasa lot of valid and factual statements. The source is also not biased to certainfirms as they want to make people aware of the changes in the constructionindustry and what can be done to make some changes. what has? more detail neededthis is plagerised! You can not copy and pastlarge sections of other peoples work and reference it at the end. YOu mustwrite this in your own words and only reference key points.you can not have two references together likethis. You need to reference the sentence that is used from another textstraight after the sentence not at the end of the paragraph.
FIX. These mustalso have footnote evaluations.??? this is not harvard referencing – fix?? this should be in your footnote evaluation??? same as above??? again this should be harvard referenced!this should be in your footnote evaluation asyou did with your first source?!!this must be titled – e.
g. figure one and alsoHarvard referenced and footnote evaluated.you must use Harvard referencing and footnoteevaluations Sharwin!same as abovethis must be titled – e.g. figure two and alsoHarvard referenced and footnote evaluated.
references? this is not your own findings!this must be titled – e.g. figure three and alsoHarvard referenced and footnote evaluated.?? you must reference properly. Please have alook at the exemplar EPQs or see me if you do not know.in this section you talk about a project.
Whatproject are you referring too? you must describe this initially so your readeris clear and you must reference this as you will be failed for plagiarisingotherwise.??? does not make sense. rewrite.again your must use harvard referencing!again this has all be plagerised!harvard reference!same as aboveincomplete