Job satisfaction is probably the most heavily examinedconcept in the field of organizational behavior (Blau, 1999). One of most important elements of workenvironment is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is seen as an outcome ofindividual and organizational variables.
Job satisfaction, in fact, isconsidered to be a manifestation of general internal and external forces thatexert influence on the individuals at work. Organizational culture is a vital factor that shapes anddetermines job satisfaction. Various researches have previously been conductedto study the impact of organizational culture on job satisfaction. Pastresearches have shown supporting evidence about the relationship betweenorganizational culture and job satisfaction (Schneider & Snyder, 1975;Kerego & Mthupha, 1997).Problem StatementMany studies have been done in the past related to therelationship between leadership qualities, organizational culture on employeeperformance (Xenikou & Simosi, 2006). Many researchers have conducted thestudy on the effect of organizational culture and leadership. Theorganizational culture and employer leadership style with employee effects onemployee performance and increase in revenue.
Some of the researchers have alsomeasured the level of job satisfaction of employee in organizational culturemarketing staff job satisfaction is higher than the employees work as a staffor managerial positions (Densten & Sarros, 2012). However, study was doneon organizational culture relation with job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment has been done in the banking sector. Therefore, still there is theneed to expand the study on organizational culture, and to measure the level ofemployee satisfaction with job and organizational commitment in Hotel Industryin Nepal. As the franchise hotel hasbeen increasing in Nepal and employee in owner managed hotels seems to beunsatisfied due several reason. So as people are more attracted in thefranchisee hotels and as per initial survey, employee seems to be dissatisfiedbecause of the organizational culture of the local managed hotels. Thisresearch tried to see whether culture is the main factor of job dissatisfactionor not.Objectives of the StudyResearch ObjectiveStudy the organizational culture in practice in the hotelindustry of Nepal and examine the impact of organizational culture on the jobsatisfaction of its employees.
Research QuestionDoes the organizational culture have an impact on the levelof job satisfaction of employees in the hotel industry in Nepal?Scope of the studyThis research intends to study the type of organizationalculture in practice in different hotels, the level of job satisfaction of theiremployees, and the relationship between organizational culture and jobsatisfaction in hotels.Relevance of the studyJob Satisfaction of employees is one of the key reasons forsuccess in any organization. Job Satisfaction has been related to several otherfactors that work towards improving the performance of a business.
Jobsatisfaction in employees is imperative in maintaining a low turnover rate. Job satisfaction has also been linked with higherproductivity and consequently higher profits for the company. Human resource isa key resource for any business and is a major source of competitive advantagein the modern business world; and especially true for service businesses. Review of LiteratureOrganizational CultureEdgar Schein defined organizational culture as “A pattern ofshared basic assumptions that a group has learned as it solved its problems ofexternal adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to beconsidered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way toperceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” (Schein, 2004). Watson(2006) opines that the concept of culture is a derivative of a metaphor meaning’something cultivated’. Overall, most practitioners studying organizationsagree that organizational culture refers to the patterns of shared basicassumptions which influences the way employees behave and accomplish their settasks (Schein, 1985).Organizational culture is commonly understood to be holisticand multidimensional idea that is established by history and socially created(Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990).
Organizational culture canalso be apparent through conversation and behavior in addition toorganizational practices (Schein, 1985). Moreover, it can be characterized bycompany artifacts, dress codes, grooming standards, ceremonies, often narratedcompany stories, and how a company deals with emergencies; all of this indicatetowards an organization’s values, beliefs, and underlying assumptions (Beach,2006; Rafaeli & Pratt, 2006). Job SatisfactionLocke (1976) described overall job satisfaction as apleasurable or positive emotional state that results from the evaluation ofone’s job. Brooke et al. (1988) claimed that job satisfaction reflects anindividual’s general attitude towards the job, stemming from the gratificationof needs and wants, while Hirschfeld (2000) referred to an expression of one’s feelingsabout his/her job. It appears, however, that individuals tend to experiencegreater levels of job satisfaction when their abilities, values and experiencescan be utilized in the working environment and when their expectations are met(Buitendach and De Witte, 2005; Roberts and Roseanne, 1998). Sabri et al (2011) conducted a research on 347 teachers tostudy the effect of organizational culture on the level of job satisfaction ofteachers in public and private sector higher education institutes anduniversities of Lahore. Supportive organizational culture may raise the levelof job satisfaction of teachers and satisfied teachers may produce healthy,satisfied and creative minds.
Bake and Nalla (2009) studied the relationship betweenorganizational culture and job satisfaction among police officers working invarious cities in two Midwestern states in United States. They gathered thedata for the study from 669 respondents in five medium and large sized policeorganizations in two Midwestern States. More specifically, police officers’perceptions about organizational factors of job satisfaction was examined andsuggested that organizational characteristics are better predictors of jobsatisfaction than individual factors.Literature review shows that, in the earlier stages,organizational culture was difficult to define, standardize and measure due toits subjective nature. In earlier researches, the researchers tried to classifyorganizational culture through stories, artifacts and norms that emerge fromindividual and organizational conduct (Lund, 2003). Many researchers have triedto develop some standards to define and measure organizational culture. Cameronand Freeman (1991) developed a model that categorizes organizational culture intwo dimensions and four cultural types. One of the dimensions ranged from’feeling’ to ‘thinking’ whereas another ranged from ‘intuiting’ to ‘sensing’.
The four types of culture that emerged from this framework were called clan,hierarchy, adhocracy and market culture. Each culture possesses oppositecharacteristics from the diagonal culture in the figure but shares somecharacteristics with the two cultures in adjacent quadrants. (Cameron, 1985) Figure: Model for OrganizationalCulture (Cameron and Freeman, 1991)The Clan Culture has dominant attributes of cohesiveness,participation, teamwork and a sense of family. Similarly, Adhocracy culture hasdominant attributes of entrepreneurship, creativity and adaptability. Hierarchyhas attributes of order, rules and regulation, and uniformity. Market cultureon the other hand has attributes of competitiveness and goal achievement.
(Gull, S. and Azam, F., 2012) Theoretical frameworkThe identification of the variables was done on the basis ofthe review of literature. The identified variables of the study are:Independent Variable: Organization CultureDependent Variable: Job SatisfactionThe relationship of the variables have been presented in thefollowing diagram: Figure: Conceptual FrameworkHypothesis: Organizational Culturehas an impact on the level of job satisfaction of employees in the hotelindustry of Nepal.MethodologyStudy designThe main purpose for the design of thisstudy is to understand the correlation between the dependent and independentvariable.
The experimental design is a hypothesis testing analysis. The lengthof the study will be one month (or 30 days). A cross-sectional study will bebest suited for this research. Unit of analysis will be the individual employeesof the hotels. A non-contrived setting is chosen as the study does not intendto interfere with the normal setting of the organization.Study LocationThe study will be conducted in different hotels insideKathmandu Valley.
Only big hotels of three star and above will be selected forthe purpose of this study. For hotels that have branches outside KathmanduValley as well, the study will be conducted in the branches inside KathmanduValley only.Population and sampleThis research intends to study the level of job satisfactionof employees in different hotels in Kathmandu and the impact of organizationalculture. The population of the research is theemployees of Hotels in Nepal. Employees in different hotels inside KathmanduValley will be selected as sample.Sample design and sizeThe sampling design will be based on non-probabilitysampling.
The study will be done amongst two different groups of employees,management and non-management. Quota sampling will be employed to ensurerepresentation from both management and non-management group. 50 employees eachwill be selected from ten different hotels inside Kathmandu as sample.The list of the hotels where the study will be conducted isas follows:1. Annapurna2.
Radisson3. Shangri-La4. YakAnd Yeti5. Hyatt6. Shanker7.
Dwarika8. KathmanduGuest House9. Soaltee10. ParkVillageMeasurement InstrumentsAccording to literature, the instruments that are mostcommonly used to measure job satisfaction are The Job Satisfaction Survey andThe Job Description Index. The measurement tool to be used for the purpose ofthis research will be The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) developed by Paul E.Spector. The JSS is a questionnaireconsisting of 18 items which look at nine different aspects of job satisfaction- pay, promotion, benefits, supervision, contingent rewards, operatingprocedures, coworkers, nature of work, and promotion.
Response to each questionranges from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”.The measurement of organizational culture will be done withthe Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by KimCameron and Robert Quinn. Each participant is asked to divide100 points over four alternatives that correspond to the four culture types,according to the present organization. This method measures the mix of orextent to which one of the four culture types dominates the present organizationalor team culture. By taking the test a second time, this time dividing the 100points over the same alternatives according to what the participant would liketo see in the company, the desire for change can be measured.
Participants willjudge six dimensions of their organization – dominant characteristics,organizational leadership, management of employees, organizational glue,strategic emphasis, and criteria of success. Data collection methodsThe source of data for this research will be primary source.Data will be collected through questionnaires provided to the selectedparticipants. A soft copy of the questionnaires will be emailed to participantsfor the collection of the required data. Data AnalysisData Analysis will be done using SPSS software. Frequencytest will be conducted to measure the frequency of demographic variables and tocheck whether the data has normal distribution. One way ANOVA will be done totest the hypothesis based on demographic variables with both dependent andindependent variables.
Correlation and Regression will be carried out to testthe hypothesis based on main dependent and independent variables, and to checkthe strength and significance of the relationship between the variables.Expected Applications of the StudyThe application of the study is to find out whether thereare significant difference in job satisfaction levels in different hotels inNepal, especially between franchise hotels and owner-managed hotels. This canbe useful for any one of those types of hotels to change the cultural aspect intheir organization to improve on the level of job satisfaction of itsemployees. The results are applicable not just for the existing hotels but alsothe many new hotels that are being established in Nepal.Limitations of the studyThe results of the study should only be viewed inlight of the limitations. The research will focus only the hotels insideKathmandu Valley which may not be generalizable across the country.
Theresearch will also only include big hotels inside the Kathmandu Valley (threestar and above) and hence the applicability of the findings of this research incase of smaller hotels may be limited.