James focused on safety and health with economical engineering

James I. Chang and Cheng-Chung
Lin (2006) review 242 accidents of storage tanks that occurred in industrial
facilities over the last 40 years. Fishbone diagram is applied to analyze the
causes that lead to accidents. Corrective actions are also provided to help
operating engineers handling similar situations in the future. There were 80
accidents (33percent) caused by lightning and 72 (30percent) caused by human
errors including poor operations and maintenance. Other causes were equipment failure,
sabotage, crack and rupture, leak and line rupture, static
electricity, open flames etc. The authors opine that most of those
accidents would have been avoided if good engineering practices had been followed.


A.Ian Glendon Sharon Clarke,
Eugene F. McKenna, (2006) addressed safety culture and models of risk. They delineate a risk management approach that includes
a range of techniques such as risk assessment, safety
audit, and safety

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Dan Hopwood and Steve Thomson,
(2006) the authors discussed the core OSHA  regulatory requirements; safety needs assessment, workers’
compensation and insurance,
disaster and emergency planning, ergonomics, risk management and loss
prevention, injury management, incident investigation, workplace security, best
practices, and formation of workplace safety


Roger L. Brauer, (2006) has
focused on safety and health with economical engineering in industries. Modern
engineers are required not only to create products and environments, but to
make them safe and economical as well. The author addresses the fundamentals of
safety, legal aspects, hazard recognition, the human element of safety, and
techniques for managing safety in engineering decisions.


The General Manager of DuPont
Australia, in an interview with Professor Andrew Hopkins, said: “Both
government safety organizations and unions are quite simplistic on safety. They
focus on equipment, not on the acts of People. In our experience, 95percent
of accidents occur
because of the acts of people.” The statistics
that 80 – 96percent of workplace injuries are caused by workers’ unsafe
behaviors stem from “research” conducted
by an insurance investigator named H.W. Heinrich
in the 1930’s in the United States. Heinrich’s “research” consisted of
reviewing supervisors’ accident reports and drawing conclusions about accident
causation from those reports. Most of those reports blamed workers for the
accident. Heinrich concluded that 88 percent of all workplace accidents were
caused by worker’s unsafe acts. Behavioral Based Safety is an approach to
safety that focuses on workers’ behavior as the cause of most work-related
injuries and illnesses. Promoters of behavior-based safety programs maintain
that 80 – 96percent of workplace injuries
are caused by workers’
unsafe behaviors. Once the programs
identify the workers
who are behaving
“unsafely”, they are coaxed, cajoled and/or threatened into behaving
“safely” on the job or sacked.


The Code of Practice of the
International Labour Organisation (ILO), (2005) lists the most common causes of
injury and illness in the Iron and Steel Industry are Slips, trips and falls.
falls from height, unguarded machinery falling of objects, engulfment, working
in confined spaces, moving machinery, on-site transport, forklifts and cranes, exposure
to controlled and uncontrolled energy
sources, exposure to asbestos, exposure to mineral
wools and fibers,
inhalable agents (skin
contact with chemicals ,
contact with hot metal, fire and explosion, extreme temperatures, radiation,
noise and vibration, electrical burns and electric shock, manual handling and repetitive work, failures due to automation, etc., are among the list.


Richard J Butler and Seung Park,
(2005) state that the indirect costs of accidents are lost wages, damage to
equipment, training and rehabilitation expenses. They opine that
On-the-job-injury costs are an important component of the firm’s operating


E. Scott  Geller (2005) states that  Industrial safety  has been identified  as  a domain
in need of large scale and long term behavior change. For this to happen, a prominent
paradigm shift is required. The standard command-and control or enforcement
approach to industrial safety has limited impact, as witnessed by the safety
performance plateaus experienced by numerous organizations. The BBS approach
provides tools and procedures employees can use to take control of their own
safety performance, thereby enabling a bottom-up empowerment approach to
reducing occupational risks and preventing workplace injuries. An effective BBS
approach requires a careful analysis
of the context in which desirable and undesirable
behaviors occur.

Subsequently, behavior change
interventions need to be de-signed, implemented, and evaluated Safety-related
behavior in a work setting usually starts out
as other directed. Such direction can come from a policy
statement, an operations manual, or a training program.
After people learn what to do, essentially by memorizing or internalizing the relevant instructions, their behavior can become self- directed. They talk to themselves or
formulate an image of the work practice before performing to activate the
appropriate behavior. Sometimes they talk to themselves after emitting a
behavior to reassure them they performed it correctly. Or, they use
self-dialogue to figure out ways to do better next time. At this point, they
are usually open to receiving corrective feedback. When some behaviors occur
frequently and consistently during a period of time, they become automatic. A habit is formed. Some habits are desirable, and some are undesirable, depending
on their short and long-term consequences. If implemented
correctly, rewards, recognition, and other positive consequences can facilitate the transfer of behavior from the self-directed state to the habit state. In this state, people are
knowingly at-risk. It is often difficult to change self directed behavior from at-risk to safe, because
such a transition usually requires
a relevant change in personal motivation.


Before a bad habit can be
changed to a good habit, the target behavior must become self-directed. In
other words, people need to become aware of their
undesirable habit (as in at-risk
behavior) before an adjustment
is possible. Then, if people
are motivated to improve (perhaps
as a result of corrective feedback or an incentive or
reward program), their new self-directed behavior can become automatic.


R.B.Whittingham (2004) describes
that it is human to make mistakes and in any
task, no matter
how simple, errors
will occur. The frequency at which they occur
will depend on the nature of the task, the systems associated with the task
(whether they are physical or organizational systems) and the influence of the
environment in which the task is carried out. It has been estimated that about
80 percent of all accidents are due to human error in some form. It is the
reason why the study of human error is crucial to preventing accidents. It is
crucial both to the prevention of major accidents with multiple fatalities, as
well as to the host of minor accidents leading
to injury and disability, which rarely make the headlines, but still cause untold
human suffering. The fact that human error cannot be entirely eliminated must
therefore have an important bearing on the level of residual risk of an activity
where human error is a potential accident contributor.


Erik Hollnagel Ashgate, (2004)
opines that there is a practical need for constructive methods. He focuses
on accident prevention rather than accident
analysis and advocates a proactive rather than reactive approach.
Further, the author assesses three types of accident models (i.e. sequential,
epidemiological, and systemic) and compares their strengths and weaknesses. He
asserts that accidents can be prevented through a combination of performance
monitoring and barrier functions, rather than through the elimination or
encapsulation of causes.


Sharon Clarke and Cary L.Cooper,
(2004) strongly believes that working in a stressful environment not only
increases the risk of physical illness or distress, but also increases the
likelihood of workplace accidents. He deals with the risk management approach
to stress evaluation in the workplace and offers practical guidelines for the
audit, assessment and mitigation of workplace stressors.


Terry E. McSween, (2003) states
that their studies replicate the DuPont findings regarding the extent to which
unsafe behavior contributes to injuries. Over ten years of analysis at hundreds
of organizations their findings suggest that in most organizations behavior
contributes to between 86percent-96percent of all injuries. These data are not
meant to suggest that employees are directly to blame for 96percent of their
injuries. From the perspective of behavioral psychology, all behavior is a function
of the environment in which
it occurs. Unsafe
work behavior is accordingly the result of the physical
environment, the social environment and Worker’s experience within these. He
also discusses about complacency of the workers which refers to the loss of the
fear of injury that typically motivates employees to work safely. Too often the
problem is that employees become complacent and begin to short cut safety
procedures. The management support is the
single most important element for ensuring a successful behavioral safety process.
Behavioral safety is much easier in organizations where employees see their
leaders consistently promoting and paying attention to safety. The managers
spend far more time paying attention to production and too little time paying
attention to safety.


Kathryn Mearns, Sean M.
Whitaker, Rhona Flin. (2003) conducted a safety climate survey on 13 oil and gas installations in United Kingdom.
The study regarding communication about
health and safety,
perceived supervisor competence, perceived management commitment to safety, Frequency
of general unsafe behavior, frequency of unsafe behavior under
incentives, safety policy knowledge, job satisfaction, Written rules and procedures and Willingness to report accidents. Analysis of data revealed that supervisors provided
more favorable scores than other respondents on most of the scales.

An article in the December 2002
issue of Safety & Health, asserted that behavior-based safety
has run its course and is in decline. A construction worker
and trades unionist for many years, Dr Dominic Cooper witnessed too many
accidents resulting from unsafe behavior. Since then he spent many years
researching and implementing behavioral safety in 12 industries on four
continents, conducted an online survey of actual Behavioral-safety end-users on
the www.behavioral- safety.com website which attracted 247 respondents.  


Richard W. Lack, (2002) provides
accurate, up-to-date information in the rapidly changing field of asset
protection. The author handles various concepts such as regulatory compliance,
technical standards, legal aspects, risk management, and training requirements
to mitigate the occurrence of accidents in industries/organisations. In the
light of the global workplace, the author highlights some of the technical standards and cultural approaches to asset
protection in the international arena.


Thomas Burns, (2002) presents a
model to systematically identify and execute the steps needed to make the
operations in organisations/industries incident-free. He opines that serious incidents affect a company’s most
important and most visible measures of performance, including profitability and
company image. In order to prevent such occurrences the author propounds a
method from a team perspective. It describes the power of Behavior Based
techniques and the benefits of developing teamwork skills. Further, the author
has included safety performance scorecards, a practical and effective tool for
preventing serious incidents.


James E Roughton and James
Merucurio, (2002) state that working safely is a cultural issue. They indicated
that an effective safety culture will eventually lead to the desired goal of
zero incidents in the work place. They have discussed the management’s role in developing an effective safety
culture, determining the direction
of management system path way to safety excellence, employees participation,
assigning responsibility, developing accountability, developing hazard
inventory, developing a hazard prevention and control system, conducting effective
incident investigations etc.


Trevor A. Kletz, (2001) presents
a systematic, professional and scientific approach to accident investigation.
By analysing accidents that have occurred, the author shows how we can learn
and thus be better able to prevent
accidents happening again.
Looking at a wide range of incidents, covering the process industries, nuclear
industry and transportation, he analyses each accident in a practical and non-
theoretical fashion and summaries each with a chain of events showing
the prevention and mitigation
which could have occurred at every stage.


E. Scott Geller, (2001) presents
science-based and practical approaches to improving attitudes and behavior
for achieving an injury-free work environment. The author discusses the proactive
applications of Behavior Based psychology for improving health and safety in
organisations/industries. He provides the safety professionals with the
information and examples related to behavioral science methods capable of
enhancing safety awareness, reducing risk behavior at work, and facilitating ongoing participation in
safety-related activities.


E. Scott Geller, (2001) provides
theory, procedures, and tools to guide an organization’s long-term continuous
improvement. He proposes certain methods to decrease the frequency and severity of accidental injuries
in organizations. He covers
all areas of psychology directly relevant to understanding and influencing
safety- related behaviors. The author presents
not only principles and practical procedures for improving safety-related behaviors, but also illustrates
how to increase people’s willingness to use these techniques to create a Total Safety Culture.


Alice F. Stuhlmacher, Douglas F.
Cellar, (2001) examined safety behavior and outline practical interventions
that help to increase safety awareness. The authors explained various ways of
defining and measuring safety as well as a variety of individual differences
like gender, job knowledge, conscientiousness, self-efficacy, risk avoidance, and stress tolerance
that are important in creating safety interventions
and improving the selection and training of


M.D. Cooper states that
Psychological and environmental influences function as joint rather than
separate determinants of behavior. However, the degree to which each element
influences the other in relation
to developing, enhancing
or maintaining organisational
safety culture is unknown. In relation to ongoing
safety-related behavior(s) much evidence is available to show that
behavioral safety performance management techniques have great utility for
improving safety.


Ron C. McKinnon, (2000) has
developed a software kit for safety professionals to identify the key factors.
The author opines that the most important objective in accident investigation
is not to establish blame, but to reveal cause and prevent recurrence. The
author has used cause-and-prevention approach to help to start with the most
productive strategy, and finished with the most usable results.


Varonen and Mattila, (2000)
studied the structure of safety climate in wood processing industries in Finland and found that organizational responsibility, workers’ safety attitudes, safety supervision and company safety
precautions accounted for 40percent of the total variance. The factors were
found to be reliable and showed negative correlation with accident rates.