Italy is one of the largest wine producing countries in the world. It offers a wide diversity of landscapes, vineyards and grape varieties. The country has a lot of vineyards that has a rich and diverse wine heritage. It is full of different kinds of regions, producing high quality wines. In the northwest corner of Italy, in the Po River Valley, there is located one of Italy’s most famous wine region Piedmont (Piemonte). Piedmont is known for tannin rich red wines and the most planted grape varieties there are Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Dolcetto. In addition to red wines, the region also produces sweet white sparkling wines like the Moscato d’Asti. Piedmont region is divided into five different board zones and all of those zones are known from different kinds of grape varieties and wines. Piedmont shares borders with Switzerland, France, and the coast of warm Mediterranean. Its climate is influenced by the Alps and Apennines and by the warm Mediterranean. Whether is usually hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winters, during the harvest time in autumn there might be occasional rains and fog. The low-lying fog affects positively on the vineyards located on the hills. The areas located higher up on the hills are more likely to get more sun, meaning that the wines produced in those areas are more likely better tasting. Areas that not get that much sun and where the climate is cooler, produce lighter tasting, higher acid wines.As result of the different combinations of the environmental and climatic conditions, there are lots of differences between the wines of the sub-regions of Piedmont. Due to the length of Italy, it is hard to describe the condition of the soil specifically. The soil of the Piedmont region is variable and mostly clay based. It usually contains lots of high levels of magnesium oxide and manganese. In some areas like Serralunga Valley, the soil is more full-bodied and tannic. The soil in Serralunga Valley is also more heavy and limestone with iron and phosphorus. The most well-known grape in Piedmont is called Nebbiolo. It is a high tannin grape with rose flavors, red cherry, and tar. The Nebbiolo grape alone makes up 13 DOC and DOG certified wines in Italy. The most respected wines produced from Nebbiolo are red wines Barolo and Barbaresco.Other well-known grapes from Piedmont are Barbera and Dolcetto. Both of the grapes are used for red wine production. The wine made from Nebbiolo has more tannins than the wines made from Barbera grape. It is also often more fruity and delicate tasting. Wine made from the Dolcetto grape are dry red wines with some tannin and fresh taste. Regardless of Piedmont known as red wine area, there are produced white wine as well. The most well-known grapes for white wine production are Moscato, Cortese, and Arneis.