INTRODUCTIONWe of the learning in the School field; therefore,

INTRODUCTIONWe can talk about evaluation in all the fields of
activity of the human being, but the object of our interest here, is the
evaluation of the learning in the School field; therefore, we will refer to it
exclusively. The evaluation of school learning refers to the
systematic and continuous process through which the degree to which learning
objectives are being achieved is determined. This process plays a key role in
the teaching-learning process, as it is fed back through this process. If, as a result of the evaluation, we discover that
the objectives are being achieved to a much lesser degree than expected or that
they are not being achieved, a review of the plans, of the activities that are
being carried out, of the attitude of the teacher will immediately arise. of
the attitude of the students and of the opportunity of the objectives that are
being pretended. All this movement will result in a readjustment, an adaptation
that will strengthen the teaching-learning process that has been carried out;
This is how evaluation performs its feedback function. Imagine the teaching-learning process without
evaluation, it would be like going out on a path wanting to reach a certain
place, but without worrying at any moment to analyze the signals that indicate
if we are on the right path; we run the risk of discovering late that we have
arrived where we did not want, or that we arrived, but having used the more
complicated route because we did not stop to observe that there was another one
shorter and in better conditions. To evaluate, in other words, is to gather all the
possible evidences that we can objectively find in favor or against each of the
activities that are being developed within the teaching-learning process.THE EVALUATION OF LEARNINGMost of the current definitions coincide in
recognizing, as basic processes of the evaluation, the collection of
information and the issuance of an evaluative judgment. However, there are
discrepancies in the extension of the concept, and therefore of the evaluation
process in its entirety, as regards the inclusion or not of the evaluative
judgment and the decision-making derived from the information and assessment
carried out, as well as the execution of those decisions and their results. An important characteristic of the evaluation of
learning is the interrelation that is established between the subjects of the
action: the evaluator and the evaluated one. In fact, the object on which the
evaluation falls is another person -individual or in a group- that stands as a
subject of the action and co-participates, to a greater or lesser extent in the
evaluation. Even more, in the case of evaluation of learning, the pretension
must be that the evaluated person is able to become his evaluator. Obviously the evaluation of learning is a process of
interpersonal communication, which meets all the characteristics and presents
all the complexities of human communication; where the roles of evaluator and
evaluated can alternate, and even, occur simultaneously. The understanding of
the evaluation of learning as communication is vital to understand why its
results do not depend only on the characteristics of the “object”
being evaluated, but also on the peculiarities of the person (s) who carry out
the evaluation and, of the links that they establish among themselves. Also,
the characteristics of the mediators of that relationship and the conditions in
EVALUATION. WHY, WHAT TO EVALUATE?The objective of the evaluation of learning, as a
generic activity, is to value learning in its process and results. The purposes
or purposes mark the purposes that signify that evaluation. Functions refer to
the role that it plays for society, for the institution, for the
teaching-learning process, for the individuals involved in it. The purposes and functions are diverse, not
necessarily coincident; they are variable, not always consciously proposed, nor
assumed or recognized. But they have a real existence. They are closely related
to the role of education in society with which it is explicitly recognized in
the educational objectives and with the implicit ones. They are linked to the
conception of teaching and to the learning that one wants to promote and the
one that is promoted. During the first half of the twentieth century and
until the 1960s, the function of evaluation was to check learning outcomes.
Whether it was in terms of academic performance or compliance with the proposed
objectives. The inadequacies of this position were felt acutely,
with the rise of the evaluation of educational programs and institutions, in
the 60’s and 70’s. A space is opened to question the goals: “The proposed
goals can be immoral, little realistic, not representative of the needs of
consumers or too limited to foresee potentially crucial side effects
“(Stufflebeam, 1985). Within the intended functions or not, of the
evaluation are: The social functions that have to do with the
certification of knowledge, accreditation, selection, promotion. The titles
awarded by educational institutions, based on the results of the evaluation,
are socially attributed the quality of symbolizing the possession of knowledge
and competence, based on the dominant values ??in each society and time. A
meritocratic society claims that its individuals and institutions are ordered
by their approach to “excellence”. The closer, the more individual
merit. The greater amount or level of titles a person achieves, the more
socially it is worth. Control function. This is one of the relatively hidden
functions of evaluation. Hidden in its relation to the declared aims or
purposes, but evident to the observation and analysis of the educational
reality. Because of the social significance that is given to the results of the
evaluation and its implications in the lives of the students, the evaluation is
a powerful instrument to exercise the power and authority of some over others,
from the evaluator to the evaluated ones. In the traditional educational field, the power of
control of teachers is enhanced by the asymmetric relationships in terms of
decision-making, the definition of what is normal, adequate, relevant, good,
excellent, with respect to the behavior of students, the results of their
learning, the contents to be learned, the ways of checking and showing the
learning, the time and conditions of learning. The advanced educational trends advocate a democratic
educational relationship, which opens channels to the committed participation
of all those involved in the evaluation process, in making relevant decisions.
To the extent that these ideas become effective and generalized in practice,
the negative effects of this function must be counteracted. Pedagogical functions Under this rubric are diverse
and constructive functions of the evaluation that, although treated with
different denominations by different authors, coincide fundamentally with
respect to their meanings. Among them are named functions: guidance, diagnostic,
prognostic, creator of the school environment, strengthening of learning,
resource for individualization, feedback, motivation, preparation of students
for life.ON THE OBJECT OF THE EVALUATION. WHAT TO EVALUATE?The delimitation of the object being evaluated is a
central issue. From it derives, to a great extent, the decisions on how the
evaluation is carried out: the instruments, procedures, moments, indicators,
criteria that are used in the evaluation process. The historical tendencies regarding the consideration
of the object of evaluation of learning, trace directions such: From the academic performance of the students, to the
evaluation of the achievement of the programmed objectives. From the evaluation of products (results), to the
evaluation of processes and products. From the search for standardized attributes or traits,
to the singular or idiosyncratic. From fragmentation, to holistic, globalizing
evaluation of being (the student) in its unity or integrity and in its context.
The determination of what to evaluate during the
process is closely related to the knowledge of the mechanisms of learning, that
is, how it is produced, its regularities, its attributes, and its conditions in
the context of teaching. The scientific studies of pedagogical and
psychological character, present important advances, although not sufficient to
give answer or contribute to the solution of many of the central problems in
force as, for example, the fact that the evaluation during the process is carried
out as a series of “summative” evaluations that distances it from the
functions envisaged for it. However, there is a significant amount of
information that points to a progressive identification of those aspects that
should be the object of the evaluation in order to value and regulate the
teaching-learning process from its beginning and during its course, through
different moments or stages. A point of special significance is the relationship
established between knowledge and skills. From this perspective, it is not
legitimate to separate -and evaluate- knowledge of skills, as all knowledge
(knowledge) “works”, is expressed, through certain actions, that make
up skills. All knowledge implies a know-how, regardless of its different levels
of cognitive demand, so that action plays a leading role in the formation,
restoration and application of knowledge. Hence, the analysis of the action in
which “knowledge” is expressed is a crucial aspect for evaluation, at
the beginning, during and at the end of a teaching-learning process. It is not
by chance that the different taxonomies of objectives establish cognitive
levels based on the distinction between actions. Close to these ideas are some of the most recent
developments in the field of evaluation such as evaluation of knowledge
organization, evaluation of executions (portfolios) and dynamic evaluation. The evaluation of the learning process brings with it
the old problem of the individualization of teaching, in the sense of
recognizing and addressing individual differences among students. It is well
known that students can reach similar results, following different paths, with
different ways of proceeding, pertinent and irrelevant in relation to the
corresponding scientific procedures and the intellectual operations involved. On the other hand, the learning styles, the rhythms,
the different visions, interests, purposes, previous knowledge, life projects;
that tend to be implicit in the “final” results of learning, appear
in the foreground during the process and may condition the results. The
evaluation should penetrate to the individual differences of the subjects of
the activity and provide the teachers and the students themselves with the
information that allows, respecting these differences, guide the process
towards the achievement of common, socially determined goals. In summary, the trends that should be followed by the
evaluation of learning are those that lead to constitute a true educational
evaluation, understood as such, in short terms, which comes in line with the
essence and regularities of the training of the students with the social
purposes that signify such training in our society.THE CLASSIFICATION OF EVALUATIONThe evaluation act of divides into: diagnostic,
formative and summative. There is talk of a diagnostic evaluation to designate
that act when we judge in advance what will happen during the educational event
or after it. Its purpose is to make the relevant decisions to make the
educational event more effective, avoiding formulas and wrong paths. Its
function is to identify the particular reality of the student by comparing it
with the reality sought in the teaching-learning objectives. It is done at the
beginning of the educational act, be it a whole course, plan, or a portion of
it. For this type of evaluation, it is advisable to use instruments as a means
of collecting information: structured objective tests, exploring or recognizing
the real situation of students in relation to the educational event. THE FORMATIVE EVALUATION is used to designate the set
of probative activities and assessments by which we judge and control the
progress of the educational process itself, analyzing the results of teaching.
Its purpose is to make decisions about the alternatives of action and direction
that are presented as the teaching-learning process progresses. Its main
function is to direct learning to obtain better results. It is done throughout
the educational event, or in any of the conflict points of the process. Within
this it is possible to use a series of instruments that could support the
evaluation: informal tests, observation and performance record, interrogations,
etc. Finally, we speak of a summative evaluation, to
designate the way by which we measure and judge the learning in order to certify
it, assign a grade, etc. Its purpose is transformed into assigning grades to
students that reflects the proportion of the objectives achieved in the course.
Its function is to explore the learning in the included contents, locating the
individual level of achievement. And it is used at the end of the educational
act. Present the objective tests as the most suitable instruments for this type
of evaluation. All school activity must be evaluated in each of the
moments of the teaching – learning process, at the beginning, during the
development and at the end of the process. For this, it is necessary to carry out the following
types of evaluation: diagnostic, qualitative or quantitative training.TRAINING EVALUATIONIt is what is done during the development of the
teaching – learning process. Its purpose is to determine the student’s
progress, detect difficulties and reorient learning. Through this evaluation, the teacher acquires
information, which allows him to modify the methodological strategies. Improve
the resources used and prepare recovery activities both individual and group,
that guide the achievement of the objectives, on the other hand, the student
knows their achievements and the deficiencies that need to be separated. The planning and carrying out of the formative
evaluation must be done fundamentally in function of established objectives,
since these are what determine how, with what to evaluate and in what
conditions. It can be done through tests prepared by the teacher,
practical work, observation, interview with the student, research work and

The teacher must
select the technique may be appropriate to evaluate all the objectives. One
technique may be appropriate for evaluating one behavior, but inappropriate for

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