INTRODUCTION The main aspect which coulddefine ‘personality’ is based on human differences, the way they think, act andmore important, behave. The study of psychology has as a dominant topic theseindividual differences and the way they influence human’s behavior.
The word’personality’ comes from Latin -persona- which means ‘mask’ and could be foundas ‘person’ in languages such as German, English and Spanish (Chamorro-Premuzic,2016). The behavior represents theway someone acts in response to an action. This is not a characteristic onlyfor humans and it is also for non-human species. The behavior is described bypersonality which shows how different people are among them and that they havetheir own particularities which define them as individuals (Buchanan,Huczynski, 2016).
Thinking about the waypersonality is used by psychologists to predict human behavior it can be saidthat individual human characteristics are the main reason of why people act inthe way they do, having a big influence on their behavior (Ajzen, 2005). There are some specificcharacteristics of personality which could describe it for a betterunderstanding of how it works; these are: describing the individual in ageneral way, presenting individual features of human, understanding causalfactors of the way they behave, showing both differences and similarities amongpeople (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2016). Knowing that there areindividual features among people, the way they act depends on theirtemperament. In Hippocrates theory are found four types of temperament:melancholic, choleric, sanguine and phlegmatic.
Thinking about his theory,individuals can be divided into four groups, each one has his ownparticularities that make it different from others three (Chamorro-Premuzic,2016). The way people act is notdescribed only by personality traits, but also could be influenced by factorsas gender and age, but this will be discussed further in the next essay. Forexample, Gray (1971) has a good point about differences between male and femalein the way they behave. Based on the endocrine system, the male is moreaggressive and cruel in many more situations than female. This depends onspecies, for example, the rodent females are less fearful than the males andthis happens based on androgen circulation. Some studies found that theway personality influences behavior could be measured based on a behavioralinstrument; the DISC instrument classifies personality as Dominant, Influencer,Steady and Conscientious. Each of them has its own features: Dominance-control, power and assertiveness, Influence- social situations and communication,Steadiness- patience, persistence and thoughtfulness, Compliance- structure andorganization (Slowikowski, 2005). Keywords: personality,behavior, influence, BIG FIVE, DISC, action, individual differences,temperament The way a person acts it depends onhis personality The researcher Bouchard,(1994) presented that there are five main determinants of personality known as’BIG FIVE’.
These are extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness,agreeableness, openness and each of them represents something and expressessome futures which make the difference among individuals. An extroverted person issociable, talkative, active, dynamic, ambitious; being opposite to anintroverted person who is more reserved, retiring. The second type ofpersonality -neuroticism- is represented by an emotional person, his traits areanxiety, depression, anger, insecurity, fear; being opposite to an emotionallystable person who quickly gets over some bad experiences.The third type-agreeableness- represents that person who is cooperative, tolerant, courteous,forgiving; being opposite to an aggressive person who is unfriendly, cold andvindictive. The fourth type, called Conscientiousness, presents that type ofperson who is careful, responsible, playful; being opposite to an authoritarianperson who is impulsive, irresponsible and careless.The last dimension-openness- talks about that person who is cultured, imaginative, original,intelligent and artistically sensitive; being opposite to that person who isunreflective, unintelligent and shallow (Barrick& Mount,1991 and Bouchard, 1994). The psychologist Marston,W.
M. was interested in how individuals feel, behave and act within the worldaround them and based on his research it was found the DISC behavioralinstrument. The dominant individual is intolerant, direct, strong worker, andhe behaves with a high level of enterprise and dynamism. The influencerindividual is persuasive, outgoing, creates a social environment and tends tobe good at delegating. The steady person is technically capable, able to teach,reliable and laid back. The conscientious person can think fast and faceproblems, is a perfectionist and exhaustive (Slowikowski, 2005).
To understand personality,it could be useful to understand the temperament first. The experience of eachperson influences and is influenced by his temperament. The temperament is amix of behaviors such as emotions, physical and mental traits (Rothbart, Ahadiand Evans, 2000).
The human behavior isdirectly influenced by some personal and social factors; from age, gender,education, experience, personality to factors such as religion, social class,culture and so on. As many factors which influence human behavior areinfluenced by it too. The way people act has a big impact on the environment, everyindividual feature has a contribution to environmental changes.
For example,people could contribute in a good or bad way to the way a lake is kept clean,how clear is the air, how clean looks a city, a garden and all of these dependson their behavior (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014). Depending on the people’sactions (the way they behave), they are alike to be considered in a specificway; for example, if someone is caught lying, he will be considered a liar; ifsomeone acts poorly, he will be considered a person without will or motivation,if someone help other, he will be considered a compassionate person. Therefore,the behavior is influenced and also influences personality giving to everyhuman a title based on their features and actions (Ajzen, I, 2005). Discussion and Critique Astudy made by Wilson (1982) on two pairs of three months old twins showed theirindividual differences by involving them in the same actions with the samepeople and creating them the same environment. The first intention with thisstudy was to express the impact on the environment and genetic influences onbehavior.
The study presents every mom acting the same in the beginning andthen difference in response to their children personality. A study based on the NewYork study, made by Thomas & Chess (1977) presents a pair of monozygotictwins adopted each of different families a birth. During preschool years theypresented similar temperament which shows some genetic determinations (Wilson,1982). Some psychologist statethat personality is gained at birth if not even before it and then is modeled basedon life experience. Others argue that individual differences are shaped bysocial factors, environment and actions.
Even with their different approach,something is clear, that personality affects the individual behavior because isflexible and change with every person experience (Buchanan, 2016). ‘The father of medicine’,Hippocrates, correlated the four types of temperament with bodily dispositions,like sanguine temperament linked with blood as body disposition, melancholicwith black bile, phlegmatic with phlegm and choleric with yellow bile. Eventhough his theories are still used, there is no proof that there is anyrelation between body chemistry and human behavior (Buchanan, 2016). Based on Jung’s theoryabout introversion and extraversion, Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers create apersonality assessment named MBTI (Mayers-Briggs Type Indicator). They usedletter codes to express individual differences. Based on their traits, humanscould have one of the 16 personality types.
Sensation, feeling, intuition andthinking represent the four features which contribute to the four groups ofcorrelations, ST: Sensation-Thinking, NT: Intuition-Thinking, NF:Intuition-Feeling and SF: Sensation-Feeling. Each one has his owncharacteristics, grouping people in different sets (Buchanan, 2016). Researchers have differentpoints of view and among studies, the connection between personality andgeneral behavior varies. The main finding presents that those adaptiveindividual differences usually have a positive connection withpro-environmental performance and attitudes (Costa & McCrae, 2012 by Poskus& Zukauskiene, 2017).
Even though there is a clear link between personalityand behavior, the correlation between the BIG FIVE traits and behavior may notbe so easily expressed, this topic is very interesting for many psychologistswho decide to research it more in-depth (Poskus & Zukauskiene, 2017). The psychologist deCastilla (2000) presents very clear the link between personality and behaviortalking about the Swiss psychologists Karl Koch and Emile Jucker findings. Shestates that the two Swiss psychologists involved ‘the tree life’ in psychology,they created the ‘Baum Test’ to find out about the human’s personality, hisindividual differences. By drawing a simple tree on a blank paper, a persontransmits his feelings, emotions, personality and they could be read justlooking at the place the individual drew the tree on page, its dimensions, itsroots, the ground line, the trunk, the twigs, its crown, the other drawings onthe page as flowers, leaves, fruits, landscape, shadows, the way the pencilline looks like and so on. Through this test, the unconsciousness is expressed,showing the individual’s personality (de Castilla, 2000). Conclusion Psychology represents ascience which explains the individual’s behavior, what people do and why theyact in that way. To describe this, researchers use to talk about personalityand individual differences which cover the best this subject.
They are lookingat how people differ and how they act in different circumstances based on theirpersonality traits (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2016). Most psychology studies present thistopic as a link between individual differences and the way people behave insome situations. Psychologists found that there are many types of personalitiesbased on some people’s emotions, feelings and actions. The well now differencesare expressed through the four types of temperament (melancholic, choleric,sanguine and phlegmatic) presenting humans in different ways and giving them alabel. The mode people behave send them into a particular group, where they arebetter found based on the group’s features.
Different factorsinfluence people behavior, not only personality. Gender, age, education areonly a few influences, the way a person acts could change, representingflexibility. The psychologistSlowikowski (2005) found out that there is an instrument which can measure thelevel of personality’s influence on behavior (DISC instrument). This instrumentclassifies personality as Dominant, Influencer, Steady and Conscientious. Eachof them has its own characteristics that describe the human in a particularway, presenting him different from the others. The way people act in theway they do is also influenced by others. Every human being triesunconsciousness to become better than others, competing among them, there is aneed to be superior (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2016). From this desire, peopleindividualize themselves and show their personality in the moment an action isrepeated.
Reviewing most psychologicalstudies, it could be said that there is an obvious link between personality andbehavior. Behavior is influenced by the most part by individual’s differences,but also by external factors which each person faces in everyday life. Word count: 1799 References:Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality,and behavior. Maidenhead: Open University PressBarrick, M. R.
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