INTRODUCTION promoting as one of the four Fleet Admirals



1.         This paper is to discuss
on Fleet Admiral William Fredrick Halsey, Jr the basic biography, overview of
lifestyle, personal characteristics, effectiveness and competence and
Leadership analysis.  He was one of a
great leader and a sea warrior, played a major role in United States (US) Navy
during the World War II. His inspirational leadership when taking command of US
forces in the South Paci?c in 1942 is widely acknowledged as the turning point
of the war in the Paci?c. Famous American historian, Samuel Eliot Morison
recognised Halsey in World War II as ‘one of the most famous sea ?ghters of
this or any other war’.

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2.         Admiral William F. Halsey
was one of the most controversial commanders in US Naval history.  He has started his naval history by commanding
first group of the Atlantic as a Lieutenant Commander by showing his confidence
and ability in destroyers and torpedo boats in year 1918, commanding USS Shaw
and decorating himself with the Navy Cross. In the course of his tenure in the
US Navy, he commanded in number of battle starting with World War I, Leyte Gulf
the Central Philippines in October 1944, Battle off Samar and showing extreme
capability of commanding South Pacific in World War II and promoting as one of
the four Fleet Admirals warn during the World War II US Navy.





3.         Admiral William F. Halsey
also known as “Bill” or “Bull” Halsey was born on 30 October 1882 in his
parents’ home Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States to a naval family. U.S. Navy
Captain William F. Halsey Sr., his father was with a decorated social
background and he was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat, and federalist.
Halsey, grownup with father’s naval stories and decided to join with the United
States Naval Academy. Till he is being in the process of selection to Naval
Academy, he joined to the University of Virgina to study on medicine alone with
his friend Karl Osterhause.  Finally, he
has received the appointment and entered to the US Naval Academy in year 1900.


4.         In his academy period,
Halsey was not good in academics. However he was able to perform in athletics
and number of clubs at the academy. He has won the Thompson Trophy Cup for
his excellence in athletics as a midshipmen and also he has shown his keen
interest in football as a half back player. This can be highlighted, his
qualities of offensive and defensive attacks were brought up with his sports.


5.         Halsey was an average
student in academics as well as military studies, showing average marks to
military subjects he was able to score high marks for subject such as
Humanitarians. This emphasised that he was a man who may win the heart of his
followers since his early days.   Finally, he graduated from the Naval Academy
on 02 February 1904 by securing the place of 43 out of 62. Subsequently,
Graduated young naval officer has been appointed to training with naval tactics
and to familiarise with the sea in aboard battleships and torpedo craft.





6.         Young naval Officer has
been promoted to the rank of full lieutenant after completion of training.
There are very few has taken up this opportunity and only for the
administrative purposes naval records states that, he was promoted to rank of junior
grade to full lieutenant on same day. After completing the initial training and
gaining experience from destroyers and torpedo boats, young Halsey has showed
his talents in World War II as a Lieutenant Commander while commanding to USS
Shaw and been commander of Atlantic Fleet Torpedo Flotilla in year 1918.
Further he has earned the Naval Cross during this operations.


7.         In October 1922, Halsey, has
been appointed as the naval attaché at the American Embassy in Berlin, Germany.
Subsequently he performed duties Christiana, Norway; Copenhagen, Denmark; and
Stockholm, Sweden in the same appointment. Once completing the administrative
appointment Halsey assigned to the sea duties once again in to destroyers in
European waters, where he commanded USS Dale and USS Osborne. In
year 1927, he served as an executive officer of the battleship USS Wyoming
and command the USS Reina Mercedes, the station ship at the Naval Academy.
Halsey continued his destroyer duty on his next two-year period at sea,
starting in 1930 as Commander Destroyer Division Three of the Scouting Force.  


8.         After commanding number
of ships and completing sea appointments, he attended to Naval War College and
then learned to piloting of an aircraft in 1935, which changed the direction of
his career. Captain Halsey has been selected as a trainee for the Naval Aviator
course rather than the simpler Naval Aviation Observer program. Once he
selected to same he informed to his better half on his career development and
future ambitions in a letter. Once she read the letter the fact that is going
for pilot training, she told her daughter, “What do you think that the old
fool is doing now? He’s learning to fly!” as a justification for above
statement Halsey state that, “I thought it better to be able to fly the
aircraft itself than to just sit back and be at the mercy of the pilot.”
Halsey earned his Naval Aviator’s Wings on 15 May 1935, at the age of 52, by
been the oldest Naval Aviator in the  history of the U.S. Navy.


10.       During his flying training
there is a special event to be noted that he won the training squadron emblem
for stupidity: the Flying Jackass, a large aluminium likeness of a donkey,
awarded to anyone who broke a safety regulation. He warn it for two weeks until
another student pilot won it away from him. However, he insisted on keeping
that particular badge with himself. When he took command of the Saratoga, he
hang it on the bulkhead of his cabin. In his command career before take a
decision towards a pilot for an infraction of rules, he was going to look at
that Flying Jackass and think twice. Such tales began the legend of Halsey, and
the true aviators got to love him. Further, Halsey considered airpower an
important part of the future navy, commenting, “The naval officer in the
next war had better know his aviation, and good.”


11.       He is been assigned to command
the carrier USS Saratoga and then commanded the Naval Air Station at Pensacola,
Florida, United States. He trained pilots who were destined to fill squadrons
for the modern carriers Enterprise and Yorktown. In year 1938, when the war had
already broken out in Asia, Halsey was promoted to the rank of rear admiral and
commanded carrier divisions. In year 1940 he was promoted to the rank of vice
admiral. Commanding the Saratoga then he was assigned to command in USS
Enterprise, one of the new carriers of the fleet, as commander of Carrier
Division Two and he was promoted to the rank of Admiral.


12.       With the Pearl Harbour
attack by the Japanese in December 1941, USA has step in to the World War II. Halsey
was commanding the carrier USS Enterprise, he was deeply affected by the visible
carnage the Japanese had in?icted at Pearl Harbour and he said that ‘before were
through with them, the Japanese language will be spoken only in hell!’ This was
one of Halsey’s quote of his aggressiveness against the Japanese and vows of revenge.
With these, he has been populated among his subordinates as well as among US
citizens as ‘Fighting Admiral”.





13.       Admiral William F. Halsey
can be highlighted as charismatic leader as well as formidable leader in World
War II considered with his leadership qualities. As per the definition given by
the Ronald E Riggio, Professor of leadership and organizational psychology at
Claremont McKenna College states that “essentially very skilled communicators,
individuals who are both verbally eloquent, but also able to communicate to
followers on a deep, emotional level,” in addition to this, charismatic leaders
are expertise in their field, with a clear vision and with a great personality.


14.       In his leadership style as
a charismatic leader, he has proven his qualities in his life style.
Considering one after another, Halsey was clearly respected by his superiors
and also enjoyed considerable popularity and loyalty from his subordinates. ‘Admiral
Halsey’s strongest point’, wrote a staff of?cer, ‘was his superb leadership.
While always the true professional and exacting professional performance from
all subordinates, he had a charismatic effect on them, which was like being
touched by a magic wand. Anyone so touched was determined to excel.’ Admiral Halsey,
was a person willing to command people, even followers were willing to work
under his command. One of the best example in his life for above was, during
World War II he was appointed for the battle duties in year 1942 in USS
Enterprises. The crew was in a heavy stress due to the stage of the battle.
They were highly motivated that the Admiral Halsey will be commanding for
them.  No one will become a “sailor’s
admiral” overnight. Halsey had earned his men’s trust through a hundred
gestures and actions.


15.       With the related reading
about the Admiral Halsey, he can be considered as a leader with competent and
command leader who is living with men. During the study of his military
achievement number of achievements can be found to show his command
capabilities, Further, it has been found that his absents due to considerable
reason were highlighted and significant during the battle situations. 


16.       He is a leader with
courage. Due to his medical condition he has been hospitalised and he has been
appointed for the Naval Academy duties while on the active operational
conditions during the Battle of Mid Way. There Halsey stated that “Missing the
Battle of Midway has been the greatest disappointment of my life, but I am
going back to the Paci?c where I intend personally to have a crack at those
yellow-bellied sons of bitches and their carriers.” He has shown his extreme
courage and forward actions with his wordings.


17.       Admiral Halsey was a lived
in the mind soul of his men. This can be highlighted with the statement stated
by an officer when he received the signal that Admiral Hasley will be taking
over the command in the pacific by saying ‘I’ll never forget it: One minute we
were too limp with malaria to crawl out of our foxholes; the next, we were
running around whooping like kids’. This was the moral wand motivation which
has been given by their leader to work under his command.


18.       Once Admiral Halsey state
that “Before we’re through with them, the Japanese language will be spoken
only in hell.” This shows the aggressiveness as a commander and it shows
energetic and demanding leader who had the ability to invigorate the U.S.
Navy’s fighting spirit when most required time during World War II.


19.       Another example in Admiral
William F. Halsey’s life to proven his charismatic leadership qualities are his
communication skills. Always he used to motivate under command with his
aggressiveness and motivated quotes. Such as “Hit hard, hit fast and hit often”
and “Kill Japs Kill Japs and Kill Japs”.


20.       As a charismatic leader,
being with the men are emphasised as a characteristic. It is to be state the
situation occurred during the World War II as an example quoted from Admiral
Halsey’s Bibliography, One day a young officer made an error that delayed the
launch of planes. Admiral King was present at the time, and King was a noted
disciplinarian (who put an end to the advancement of one naval captain because
he ran a cruiser aground in a fog trying to get King back to Washington to make
an appointment). ‘Who was responsible for the delay?’ King demanded by
signal, and on the bridge of the Enterprise souls quaked as the message was
taken to Admiral Halsey’s bridge. ‘Comcardive Two’, was the
reply. There was no further word from the flagship. But on board the
Enterprise the story went from keel to masthead. Admiral Halsey was the sort of
officer who protected his men, it said. 


21.       Taking up the responsibility
is essential in the leadership. Further the following incident which will be demonstrate
the autocratic leadership as well aggressiveness of the Admiral during his
tenure in the US Navy. In a day during the World War II, Naval intelligence
indicated Wake Island would be the target of a Japanese surprise attack. In
response, on 28 November 1941 Admiral Kimmel ordered Halsey to take
USS Enterprise to ferry aircraft to Wake Island to reinforce the
Marines forces with given Halsey “a free hand” to attack.


22.       The planes flew off her
deck on 02 December. Highly anxious of being spotted and then jumped by the
Japanese carrier force, Halsey gave orders to “sink any shipping sighted,
shoot down any plane encountered.” Protested his operations officer,
“Goddammit, Admiral, you cannot start a private war of your own! Who’s
going to take the responsibility?” Admiral Halsey said that “I will
take it! If anything gets in my way, we will shoot first and argue
afterwards.” As it turned out, Japan conducted a landing attack on Wake
Island on 11 December, an attack was repulsed by the Marine forces. Thus
demonstrating that Admiral Kimmel had acted on the best available intelligence
information at the time.



23.       When considering the behaviour
of the followers during the numerous situations with in this paper, it gives
significant proves to identify that followers were willing to be under his
leadership. He has proven with his character that his charismatic leadership,
he was applying communication and looking after his follower in an emotional
way. Nevertheless, he was caring on his men as well as doing his service
towards the nation by achieving the task which he was allocated by his higher authority.


24.       In addition to this, he
was the oldest Aviator in the US Navy as well as he was the only commanding
personal at that time who was with capability of Air and sea in World War II. This
was proven that his encourage, qualification as well as his dedication and
commitment towards the service. Following medals and awards will be witness for
his leader performance and number of quotes and write-ups by his followers will
gives strong evidence to prove his followers satisfaction.


25.       Number of decorations and
awards were awarded to appreciate his distinguish service are, Navy Cross, Distinguished
Service Medal with three gold stars, Army Distinguished Service Medal, Presidential
Unit Citation, Mexican Service Medal, Victory Medal, Destroyer Clasp, American Defence
Service Medal with Fleet Clasp, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, World War II
Victory Medal, National Defence Service Medal and finally, Philippine
Liberation Medal.





26.       Following findings are been
analysed during the leadership analysis of Admiral Halsey,   

a.         Admiral William F. Halsey is a leader with charismatic leadership
qualities with a blend of autocratic leadership.

b.         Courage and determination will encourage to achieve the all
challenges in the life, age will not be a barrier to achieve the final goal.

c.         Always be care men under command and motivate them. Further,
emotional intelligence towards performance are effective.





27.       In light of all above, it is
recommended to induct the qualities of leadership of Admiral William F. Halsey to
become as a potential leader in the Sri Lanka Air Force.





28.       In conclusion, Fleet Admiral
William F. Halsey is one of the great leader with a heart of Navy blue and
gold, it pumped salt water till he die. He was a known as a “Fighting Admiral”,
who cares on his men a lot than himself. He led his men with his charismatic
power and succeed doing World War II by entering to the legends.


29.       He never hesitates to take
responsibility towards his shoulder and was willing to take challenge he is
been assigned. Highlighted with his superiors, never let them down with the
confidence they kept on him. Even though, he is not alive his leadership is
been thought to worldwide potential leaders at Admiral William Halsey
Leadership Academy in Elizabeth, USA.