introduction problems. They are embedded part of an entire

introduction

Passenger information display system is the system to
provide information about the metro arrival to passengers. A compact size  of the same was made on PCB. This project is
the replica of the PIDS with a renewable power source.This model was prepared
using EMBEDDED system which include software stimulation and hardware
designing.

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 Firstly the circuitry
was designed for the same purpose. A schematic was designed in PROTEUS ISIS. Circuit
network was designed in PROTEUS ARES.A pdf file of the circuitry was then
generated and with help of it pcb was etched and a network of copper wires was
formed on the pcb. To place the components of circuit on the pcb holes were
drilled using pcb drilling machine.components were then placed manually
according the schematic. All the components including micro-controller, lcd,
led’s, regulator were soldered at their position.

Initially the model was powered
by dc supply using a dc connector. After removing all the errors and
successfully running the model, a 20V Photovoltaic cell was inserted in place
of dc connector along with a 9V battery. This amendment increased the
efficiency, reduced the cost of power supply and provided an uninterrupted
power supply to microcontroller.

Embedded systems

Embedded systems are C0MPUTING systems with a fervent operate
among the mechanical and electrical system, usually beside period computing
problems. They are embedded part of an entire device usually as well as
hardware or mechanical component. Embedded systems manage several devices in
use nowadays.

Embedded systems ar managed by single or multiple process cores
within the sort of microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP),
field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), application-specific integrated circuits
(ASIC) AND circuit arrays. These process parts ar integrated with parts
dedicated to handling electrical and/or mechanical interfacing.

 

An embedded system’s key feature is dedication to specific
functions that generally need robust general processors. for instance, router
and switch systems ar embedded systems, whereas a general laptop uses a correct
OS for routing practicality. However, embedded routers operate additional
expeditiously than OS-based computers for routing functionalities.

Pic16f887

This widely useful however
easy-to-program (with only thirty five   instructions)
CM0S FLASH-based, 8-bit microcontroller pack Microchip’s  PIC design into Associate in Nursing forty- or
forty four-pin package. The PIC16F887 options 256 bytes of EEPROM information
registry, automatic programming, an ICD, along with Comparators and fourteen
channels of 10-bit  (A/D) device, one
capture/compare/PWM and some improvised capture/compare/PWM functions, a
synchronous port that may be organized also as 3-wired Serial Peripheral
Interface or the 2-wired Internally Integrated Circuit bus Associated with
Nursing an increased Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART). All
of those options makes it ideal for a lot of advanced level A/D applications in
automatic, industrial, appliances and shopper applications.

PV SYSTEMS

A complete system includes
completely different elements that ought to be chosen taking into thought your
individual wants, web site location, climate and expectations. during this
section we have a tendency to review the components’ perform and a number of
other completely different system varieties.

The practical and operational
needs can verify which elements the system will embrace. it should embrace
major elements as; DC-AC power electrical converter, battery, system and
battery controller, alternate energy sources.

 Types of PV Systems

Photovoltaic-based systems square
measure usually classified in keeping with their practical and operational
needs, their part configuration, and the way of instrumentation connection is
the parallel power sources and electrical devices (appliances).Principle
classifications square measure Grid-Connection and Stand Alone Systems.

 

LCD 16×2 (LM016L)

The widely used Character based mostly LIQUID CRYSTAL
DISPLAYs are supported by Hitachi’s HD44780 controller or some other controller
that are similar to HD44580.

The most  used LCDs found
across the market these days are the one Line, 
two Line or four Lines LCDs that have only single controller and support
at most of eighty characters, whereas LCDs supporting above eighty characters
create usage of two HD44780 controllers.

Mostly LCDs with one controller has fourteen Pin and LCDs with a
pair of controller has sixteen Pin. Pin description of LCD– lm016l is shown
within the table below.