Introduction: more than 100,000 daily flights operate safely in


Many factors affect the flight crew
training and licensing whether it be Private Pilot License or a Commercial
Pilot license. All of the regulatory bodies involved in the crew licensing have
a great deal of responsibility for making sure that flying schools and training
centre are correctly following the regulations set out by the appropriate authority.

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The main regulatory bodies involved
within the crew training and licensing process are the International Civil
Aviation Authority (ICAO), European Aviation Safety Authority (EASA) and the Civil
Aviation Authority (CAA).


Regulatory Bodies:


International Civil Aviation
Authority (ICAO)

The United Nations set up a specific
organisation called International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) in 1944 by
states to manage and relegate international civil aviation

ICAO works with the Chicago
conventions 192 member states and industry organisations to agree on
international civil aviation Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPS) and rules
to achieve a safe, effective, secure and economically sustainable and environmentally
sensible civil aviation industry. The Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPS)
and policies set out by ICAO in agreement with the member states are used by
the member states within ICAO to make sure that their local civil aviation
operations and regulations obey to global standards. Due to the global
standards set out by ICAO more than 100,000 daily flights operate safely in the
aviation’s global network. Annex 1

 (International Civil Aviation Authority , 2017)  


European Aviation Safety
Authority (EASA)

The European Aviation Safety
Authority is the core of the European Union’s approach to aviation safety. EASA’s
aim is to encourage the highest possible standard of safety and environmental protection
within civil aviation. EASA develops common safety and environmental
regulations for Europe, EASA other job role is to inspect that the regulations
and standard set out by EASA are being implemented by the member states. EASA
also provides member states with essential technical knowledge, training and
research, EASA works with local authorities closely to complete operational jobs
for example certification of individual aircraft and pilots’ licenses. (EASA, 2017)




Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)

The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is the United Kingdom’s
national relevant authority,
and as the UK’s specialist aviation Authority their key responsibility is to
make sure that the aviation industry meets the highest safety standards. Other responsibilities
include making sure
regulations are being obeyed., creating policy
for the use of UK airspace, the economic regulation of Heathrow, Stansted and Gatwick
airports. The Civil Aviation Authority also manages the licensing and financial
health of airlines, as well as managing the Air Travel Organisers Licence (ATOL) financial protection programme for travellers.
However, the Civil Aviation Authority work for the Department Of Transport

In terms of flight crew licensing the Civil Aviation Authority
provides us with cap 804, which is mandatory requirements and




Pilot Licenses

Private Pilot License (PPL)

In order to obtain a private pilot license (PPL) the applicants needs to be the minimum age of 17 years
old and needs to complete
a minimum of 45 hours of flight instructions on an aircraft, 5 of which can be done
in an approved flight simulator. 25 hours need to be dual flight instruction, 10
hours need to be supervised solo time, at least 5 hours of solo cross country
with a minimum of 1 cross country flight which is at least 150 Nautical Miles
which includes
full stop landings at 2 airfields different from the
departure airfield.
As well as the all the practical training there are 9 ground PPL exams which
have to be passed, the exams are Human performance and limitations, Air Law,
Aircraft General Knowledge, Performance of Flight, Navigation, Metrology, Operational
Procedures, Communications and Radio Telephony. Once all of the ground exams
have been passed and all the necessary flight training/ hours have been
completed the skills test needs to be completed and passed to obtain a Private
Pilot License (CAA, 2017)  COST



Commercial Pilot License (CPL)

This is the next phase
after the private pilot license if you want to fly passengers or cargo. To obtain
a commercial pilot license the applicant needs to be minimum age of 18 years of
age and hold a class 1 medical. The applicant needs to have a minimum of 180
hours of their Private Pilot License with a minimum of 50 hours as Pilot in
Command. Commercial Pilot License allows the holder pretty much same privileges
as a Private Pilot license, but however provides the holder with couple more privileges
such as act as pilot in
command (PIC) or co-pilot of any
aircraft operations apart from commercial air transport, act as PIC in commercial air
transport of any single-pilot aircraft
however some restrictions apply and only act as co-pilot
in commercial air transport however some restrictions
apply. (CAA, 2017)

There are also 13 theoretical knowledge exams
which the holder has to pass
as part of
their CPL training, the exams are listed below:

Air law
general knowledge — airframe/systems/powerplant
general knowledge — instrumentation
Mass and
planning and monitoring
Principles of
Visual flight
rules (VFR) communications

(CAA, 2017)




Air Transport Pilot License

In order to obtain an Air Transport
Pilot License, you have to be at least 21 years of age and hold a class one
medical. The ATPL is the most valuable license you can obtain so it requires a
large amount of flying hours. COST



Cabin Crew License







Class 1 Medical

The class 1 is the highest medical you can receive for a
pilot and it is a mandatory requirement to hold a class 1 Medical in order
train for a Commercial Pilot License or an Air Transport License. The Class 1
Medical costs between £250 and £350 and only can be issued by a Civil Aviation Authority
authorised medical examiner. The Class 1 medical examination is carried out at
an aeromedical centre and the examination can last up to 4 hours, the
examination includes an eye test, lung function test, urine test, haemoglobin
blood test, physical examination and Electrocardiogram. If the standards are met the class 1 certificate can be issued on the same
day, however it standards are not met further investigations are necessary then
the class 1 medical certificate can take longer to be issued.

If you are
40 years of age or under the class 1 medical certificate is valid for 12
months, however if you are 40 years old or over and operate single pilot
commercial air transport operations flying passengers or if you are over 60
then the class 1 medical certificate is only valid for 6 months.