Introduction Cristalare replacing all of their emergency lighting due to cost. They are changingthe lights to L.E.D which is more cost efficient. So I am going to analyse anemergency light. This will be a product analysis of a bulk head light fitting.As a part of this analysis, this report will consider the factors thatinfluence the design of these lighting products will include commercialproduction, manufacturing considerations, life cycle and conformity tolegalisation. CommercialProductionThe keymain ways to produce things is one off – batch or mass production,OneBatchMassThe lamp ismass produced we can say this because Thefollowing production methods would be used to make the lamp:-GlassmanufacturingGlassis made by fine grained ingredients which is closely controlled for quality, are mixed to make a batch,which flows into the furnace, which is heated up to 1500 degree Celsius.
The raw materials that go into themanufacturing of clear float glass are:· SiO2 – Silica Sand· Na2O – Sodium Oxide from Soda Ash· CaO – Calcium oxide from Limestone / Dolomite· MgO – Dolomite· Al2O3 – Feldspar The above raw materials primarilymixed in batch helps to make clear glass. If certain metal oxides are mixed tothis batch they impart colours to the glass giving it a body tint.For example:· NiO & CoO – to give grey tinted glasses (Oxides of Nickel &Cobalt)· SeO – to give Bronze tinted glasses (oxide of Selenium)· Fe2O3 – To give Green tinted glasses (oxides of iron which at times isalso present as impurity in Silica Sand)· CoO – To give blue tinted glass (oxides of Cobalt) Metal production. This process if press forming Press Forming is a process whereby the sheet is heated awayfrom the tooling, then transported from the heat source to the tooling. It isthen clamped in position and a male plug presses the sheet into the desiredshape.
Press forming is when a pair of toolscalled a “die” is mounted inside a press and then a material (such as metal) isplaced inside the die. The press then applies high pressure (3000 tons of forceor higher on large presses) and the material is formed to match the shape ofthe die. In other words, press forming is a forming technology where a pressingforce is applied to a material to deform it (by bending, stretching, etc.) tomatch the size and shape of the die, and the material then maintains that shapeforever.Presses are suited for mass productionbecause press forming can quickly produce the same product over and over again,and presses are widely used around the world in the automotive industry as wellas in the factories of other industries.ZincAlloy Zinc Alloy (ZA2) is high with tensile strength L2 is a Zinc based alloy which can be used forhot chamber pressure die cast components or gravity casting. Used for smallcastings where hardness and high tensile strength are essential, the high copper content of this alloy canreduce the dimensional stability. Die CastingDie casting isa metal casting ”’process”’that is characterized by forcing moltenmetal under high pressure into a mouldcavity.
The mould cavity is created using two hardened toolsteel dies which have beenmachined into shape and work similarly to an injectionmould during the process. Most die castings are madefrom non-ferrous metals,specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-basedalloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chambermachine is used. Slicone Rubber manufacturing process:Silicone rubber.
Silicone rubber isan elastomer (rubber-likematerial) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon togetherwith carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. … Silicone rubbers are often one- or two-part polymers,and may contain fillers to improve properties or reduce cost. Ingredient in silicone rubber:· Methicone.· Phenyl trimethicone.
· Dimethicone.· Cyclomethicone.· Dimethiconol.
· Dimethicone copolyol Ceramics. Slip casting or slip casting is atechnique for the mass-production of pottery and ceramics, especially forshapes not easily made on a wheel. Slip cast wareshould not be confused with slipware, which is potteryformed by any technique that is decorated using slip. In slip casting, a liquidclay body slip (usually mixed in a blunger) is poured into plaster moulds and allowed to forma layer, the cast, on the inside walls of the mould. In a solid cast mould, ceramic objects such as handlesand plates are surrounded by plaster on all sides with a reservoir for slip,and are removed when the solid piece is held within. For a hollow cast mould,for objects such as vases and cups, once the plaster has absorbed most of theliquid from the outside layer of clay the remaining slip is poured off forlater use.
After a period for further absorption of water, the cast piece isremoved from the mould once it is leather-Salt cake:Is an impureform of sodium sulphate, especially as obtained by the interaction of sulfuricacid and common salt inthe synthesis of hydrochloric acid: used chiefly in the manufacture of glass,ceramic glazes, soaps, and sodium salts. Origin of salt cake.Hard, that is, firmenough to handle without losing its shape. It is then “fettled”(trimmed neatly) and allowed to dry out further, usually overnight or forseveral hours. This produces a greenware piece which is thenready to be decorated, glazed and fired in a kiln. Nuts and bolts Most nuts and bolts are sized M8 and are made withtolerances, these follow ISO68- ISO is the international standards organisationwhich allows global manufactures to follow standards so that they can use eachother’s components. Metric Hex Nuts ISO 4032 Nominal Size Thread Pitch F G H Width Across Flats (Wrench Size) Width Across Corners Thickness Max Min Min Max Min M1.6 0.
35 3.2 3.02 3.41 1.3 1.
05 M2 0.4 4 3.82 4.32 1.6 1.35 M2.
5 0.45 5 4.82 5.45 2 1.75 M3 0.5 5.5 5.32 6.
01 2.4 2.15 M4 0.7 7 6.78 7.66 3.
2 2.9 M5 0.8 8 7.78 8.79 4.7 4.4 M6 1 10 9.
78 11.05 5.2 4.9 M8 1.25 13 12.
73 14.38 6.8 6.44 M10 1.5 16 15.73 17.77 8.4 8.
04 M12 1.75 18 17.73 20.03 10.
8 10.37 M14 2 21 20.67 23.35 12.
8 12.1 M16 2 24 23.67 26.75 14.8 14.1 M20 2.5 30 29.16 32.
95 18 16.9 M24 3 36 35 39.55 21.
5 20.2 M30 3.5 46 45 50.85 25.
6 24.3 M36 4 55 53.8 60.78 31 29.4 M42 4.5 65 63.1 71.3 34 32.
4 M48 5 75 73.1 82.6 38 36.
4 M56 5.5 85 82.8 93.56 45 43.4 M64 6 95 92.8 104.86 51 49.
1 Life cycle This report will also focus on the life cycle of thisproduct. This product gets recycled by WEEE (waste electrical and electronicequipment) it is important to a manufacturer to reuse material rather thanwasting it. It starts of as materials which get transported to theproduction line. Once it is made it gets transported to the supermarkets andthe shops. They it get bought and gets use until it breaks and is then recycledby WEEE and used again later. Glass is taken by the glass collectors and thrown intoa recycling bin.
Glass is then separated inside the glass treatment plant. Theglass bottles are sorted by colour and then washed to remove any impurities.The glass is then crushed and melted, then moulded into new products such asbottles and jars. GlassLife Cycle (cullett)What is a cullet?A cullett is the phrase used to define recycled glass,instead of using raw materials we can use cullet. Cullet can includepost-consumer and post production glass, fine grinds and flat glass (e.g. windows).
Environmental FactsGlass can be recycled endlessly with no loss in quality or purity. In 2014, 40% of glass beer and soft drink bottles, 32% of wine and liquorbottles, 15% of food jars, and approximately 32.5% of all glass containers wererecycled. In some states, like California, glass bottle recycling reachesover 80%.*Unmatched Environmental Benefits· Recycling glass containers provides for unmatched productionefficiencies and significant environmental benefits:· Saves raw materials — over a ton of natural resources areconserved for every ton of glass recycled, including 1,300 pounds of sand, 410pounds of soda ash, 380 pounds of limestone, and 160 pounds of feldspar.· The container and fiberglass industries collectively purchase 3.2million tons of recycled glass annually, which is re-melted and repurposed foruse in the production of new containers and fiberglass products.
· Lessens the demand for energy — Energy costs drop about 2-3% forevery 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process.· Cuts CO2 emissions — for every six tons of recycled containerglass used, a ton of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is reduced. A relative10% increase in cullet reduces particulates by 8%, nitrogen oxide by 4%, andsulphur oxides by 10%.· Extends furnace life — including cullet in the manufacturing mixmakes it less corrosive and lowers the melting temperature (from 2800 degreesF. to 2600 degrees F.
), prolonging furnace life.· No processing by-products — Glass recycling is a closed-loopsystem, creating no additional waste or by-products. Metal RecyclingMetals recycling isan increasingly significant contributor to environmental and manufacturinghealth in the UK. Local spaces are protected from discarded debris, ahuge workforce is kept in employment and energy is routinely saved through thesupport of the UK metals recycling industry.For these reasonswe’ve assembled the following guide – utilising our industry expertise – oneverything to do with metal recycling.How to recycle metalNot only canreusing excess mined materials help to prevent physical waste in the environment,by reducing waste, the need for manufacturing processes to replace and forgenew materials is eliminated.
If you have acollection of valuable metals, you have a few options:· For metals like aluminium or tin cans, there may be a collection programin your local area.· Many metals need to be taken to an appropriate recycling centre whichstates its ability to recycle or dispose of the materials properly.· Alternatively, you can bring your metals to a drop-off centre or scrapdealer which should accept a variety of materials for recycling.Many establishmentslike these will pay you for recyclable scrap metal, the most commonly acceptedtypes being aluminium, brass, and copper, iron and steel. Every metal isunique in its type, requiring a specific recycling process and reclaimingmethod. CeramicCeramic is an inorganic compound, non-metallic solid materialcomprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
This article gives an overviewof ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science. Slip castingCeramics can be made I a variety of ways one example isslip casting. Slip casting is when slip, liquid clay, is poured into a plaster mould.The water in the slip is drawn out of the slip, leaving an inside layer ofsolid clay. When this is thick enough, the excess slip can be removed from themould.
When dry, the solid clay can then also be removed. The slip used in slipcasting is often liquefied with a substance that reduces the need foradditional water to soften the slip; this prevents excessive shrinkage whichoccurs when a piece containing a lot of water dries.Ceramic shell castingAnother example of ceramic processes is called ceramicshell casting.
Ceramic shell casting which involves silica, zirconia and other refractorymaterial which are currently used in metal parts industry for net casting,forming precision shell moulds for molten metal casting Rubber life cycle Once rubber has been used the can re-use the rubber byre-treading tires they also use it in non-automotive engineering and in latexproducts. They use rubber in footwear and belting and hose. However they arealso used in other miscellaneous product and items. Conformity of legislationThis report will also be focusing on the conformity oflegislation, IP44 is a coding system which is defined in international standardIEC 60529. IP codes refer to the degree of protection against intrusion ofsolids or water in electrical enclosures. The code always consist of the IPplus two numbers and optionally another letter. The first number refers to thedegree of protection against solids while the second number refers to thedegree of protection against water.
The scale goes from 0 9no protection) to 6 (dust tight)in the first digit. The second digit goes from 0 (not protected) to 9(immiscible beyond one meter.)IP44 means:4 as the first digit: protected against most wires,screws, tools and fingers 4 as the second digit: protected against watersplashing the enclosure from any direction. When it comes to bathroom lighting, a rating of IP44means the lighting can be used anywhere in the bathroom, with the exception ofright inside the bath or shower stall. Lighting in this area, also called zone0, must be IP67 or completely immiscible. IP44-rated lighting may be used abovethe bath or shower staring at about 2 ½ yards from floor level.
IP rating is also known as Ingress Protection orInternational Protection ratings which are defined to the internationalstandard of EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989). Thesestandards are used to define the levels of sealing effectiveness of electricalenclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies such as dirt and water. The rating consistsof the letters IP followed by 2 digits, the first digit stands for thelevel of protection that the enclosure provides against solidbodies, the second digit describes the degree of protection of the equipmentinside the enclosure against water, for example:IP65 = First Digit – SolidsIP65 = Second Digit- LiquidsHere is a useful website to understand the IP ratings.http://www.rainfordsolutions.com/ip-enclosure-ratings-and-standards IK ratings.As well as IP rating they also have IK ratings which iskinetic impact.
The IK Code(otherwise known as Impact Protection Rating) consists of the letters IK,followed by two digits. The two digits identify the level of protection a pieceof equipment offers. The numbers show how much force it can with stand when itis drop on the product. Here is an example;· 10.0 Kg impacting from a height of 350mm= 35 Joules- IK11Thismeans that it can with stand a force of 10.0Kg from a height of 350mm whichequals 35 Joules of impact is forced upon the product. This means if it canwith stand this impact it has a rating of IK11 or higher. Health and safety Firstly, before the light is sent to the shops orsupermarkets the light has to meet the British Standards Institution otherwise the light will not be able toleave the factory.
Legalrequirements:Themain requirement is BSEN 1838: 2013 4.2 which is involuntary for the light to be just bright enoughfor people to see and escape “50% of the illuminance must be available within 5seconds and the full value within 60 seconds of supply failure.” This come fromLighting Level Requirements. Every “escape route must have at least 2luminaires, to provide some light in the event of luminaire failure.
” Thiscomes from Stage 4 Escape RouteLighting Criteria. Here is a table ofdifferent bulkhead lights and there IP rating and the positives and negativesabout the product: Utility round black outdoor bulkhead light IP44 rating, suitable for outdoor lighting costs £12.50 GBP Positives: Its suitable for outside use can be used on walls and ceilings, IP44 rated. Negative: It’s only protected against splashes of water. Could end up rusting Overall: This light will only be useful for only certain jobs.
BRACKENHEATH ISPOT LED DRIVERLESS BULKHEAD WHITE / SILVER 20W (4206J IP 54 rating, not too suitable for outdoor use. Positives: Protected from limited dust ingress. Negatives: Only protected against splashes of water. Could end up rusting Overall: This light is suitable for outdoor use however not a lot of water can be pressured against it. LUCECO MOSI LED 3-HOUR EMERGENCY LIGHTING BULKHEAD WHITE 14W (7868H) IP 65 rating, suitable for outdoor use.
Costs £62.99 GBP. Positives: This light is energy efficient, weatherproof and light weight. Negatives: Plastic biodegrades in light so will have to be replaced. Overall: This light is weatherproof so good for outdoor use however it will need to be replace once in a while. Minisun 21586 Bow IP66 Oval Polished Aluminium Nautical Bulkhead IP66 rating suitable for outdoor use.
Also good protection against dust. Costs £45.00 GBP Positives: Polished aluminium finish with a clear glass diffuser – great for a rustic Negatives: Corrodes overtime Overall: This is suitable for outdoor use and around dust however it does eventually corrode. Rubber seal to protect it from weathering and corroding Here I have disassembled the bulkhead light andfollowed the manufactures guide to fully disassemble the product.
I have alsodone the engineering drawings of the bulkhead light and done a disassembly drawingwith step by step instructions and a breakdown of the materials. I usedappropriate PPE at all times and selected the correct tool for each part of thedisassembly as required.