are replacing all of their emergency lighting due to cost. They are changing
the lights to L.E.D which is more cost efficient. So I am going to analyse an
emergency light. This will be a product analysis of a bulk head light fitting.
As a part of this analysis, this report will consider the factors that
influence the design of these lighting products will include commercial
production, manufacturing considerations, life cycle and conformity to
main ways to produce things is one off – batch or mass production,
The lamp is
mass produced we can say this because
following production methods would be used to make the lamp:-
is made by fine grained ingredients which is closely controlled for quality, are mixed to make a batch,
which flows into the furnace, which is heated up to 1500 degree Celsius. The raw materials that go into the
manufacturing of clear float glass are:
SiO2 – Silica Sand
Na2O – Sodium Oxide from Soda Ash
CaO – Calcium oxide from Limestone / Dolomite
MgO – Dolomite
Al2O3 – Feldspar
The above raw materials primarily
mixed in batch helps to make clear glass. If certain metal oxides are mixed to
this batch they impart colours to the glass giving it a body tint.
NiO & CoO – to give grey tinted glasses (Oxides of Nickel &
SeO – to give Bronze tinted glasses (oxide of Selenium)
Fe2O3 – To give Green tinted glasses (oxides of iron which at times is
also present as impurity in Silica Sand)
CoO – To give blue tinted glass (oxides of Cobalt)
This process if press forming Press Forming is a process whereby the sheet is heated away
from the tooling, then transported from the heat source to the tooling. It is
then clamped in position and a male plug presses the sheet into the desired
Press forming is when a pair of tools
called a “die” is mounted inside a press and then a material (such as metal) is
placed inside the die. The press then applies high pressure (3000 tons of force
or higher on large presses) and the material is formed to match the shape of
the die. In other words, press forming is a forming technology where a pressing
force is applied to a material to deform it (by bending, stretching, etc.) to
match the size and shape of the die, and the material then maintains that shape
Presses are suited for mass production
because press forming can quickly produce the same product over and over again,
and presses are widely used around the world in the automotive industry as well
as in the factories of other industries.
Zinc Alloy (ZA2) is high with tensile strength L2 is a Zinc based alloy which can be used for
hot chamber pressure die cast components or gravity casting. Used for small
castings where hardness and high tensile strength are essential, the high copper content of this alloy can
reduce the dimensional stability.
Die casting is
a metal casting ”’process”’
that is characterized by forcing molten
metal under high pressure into a mould
cavity. The mould cavity is created using two hardened tool
steel dies which have been
machined into shape and work similarly to an injection
mould during the process. Most die castings are made
from non-ferrous metals,
specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, pewter and tin-based
alloys. Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber
machine is used.
Slicone Rubber manufacturing process:
Silicone rubber. Silicone rubber is
an elastomer (rubber-like
material) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together
with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. … Silicone rubbers are often one- or two-part polymers,
and may contain fillers to improve properties or reduce cost.
Ingredient in silicone rubber:
Slip casting or slip casting is a
technique for the mass-production of pottery and ceramics, especially for
shapes not easily made on a wheel. Slip cast ware
should not be confused with slipware, which is pottery
formed by any technique that is decorated using slip. In slip casting, a liquid
clay body slip (usually mixed in a blunger) is poured into plaster moulds and allowed to form
a layer, the cast, on the inside walls of the mould.
In a solid cast mould, ceramic objects such as handles
and plates are surrounded by plaster on all sides with a reservoir for slip,
and are removed when the solid piece is held within. For a hollow cast mould,
for objects such as vases and cups, once the plaster has absorbed most of the
liquid from the outside layer of clay the remaining slip is poured off for
later use. After a period for further absorption of water, the cast piece is
removed from the mould once it is leather-
Is an impure
form of sodium sulphate, especially as obtained by the interaction of sulfuric
acid and common salt in
the synthesis of hydrochloric acid: used chiefly in the manufacture of glass,
ceramic glazes, soaps, and sodium salts. Origin of salt cake.
Hard, that is, firm
enough to handle without losing its shape. It is then “fettled”
(trimmed neatly) and allowed to dry out further, usually overnight or for
several hours. This produces a green
ware piece which is then
ready to be decorated, glazed and fired in a kiln.
Nuts and bolts
Most nuts and bolts are sized M8 and are made with
tolerances, these follow ISO68- ISO is the international standards organisation
which allows global manufactures to follow standards so that they can use each
Metric Hex Nuts
Width Across Flats
This report will also focus on the life cycle of this
product. This product gets recycled by WEEE (waste electrical and electronic
equipment) it is important to a manufacturer to reuse material rather than
It starts of as materials which get transported to the
production line. Once it is made it gets transported to the supermarkets and
the shops. They it get bought and gets use until it breaks and is then recycled
by WEEE and used again later.
Glass is taken by the glass collectors and thrown into
a recycling bin. Glass is then separated inside the glass treatment plant. The
glass bottles are sorted by colour and then washed to remove any impurities.
The glass is then crushed and melted, then moulded into new products such as
bottles and jars.
Life Cycle (cullett)
What is a cullet?
A cullett is the phrase used to define recycled glass,
instead of using raw materials we can use cullet. Cullet can include
post-consumer and post production glass, fine grinds and flat glass (e.g. windows).
Glass can be recycled endlessly with no loss in quality or purity.
In 2014, 40% of glass beer and soft drink bottles, 32% of wine and liquor
bottles, 15% of food jars, and approximately 32.5% of all glass containers were
recycled. In some states, like California, glass bottle recycling reaches
Unmatched Environmental Benefits
Recycling glass containers provides for unmatched production
efficiencies and significant environmental benefits:
Saves raw materials — over a ton of natural resources are
conserved for every ton of glass recycled, including 1,300 pounds of sand, 410
pounds of soda ash, 380 pounds of limestone, and 160 pounds of feldspar.
The container and fiberglass industries collectively purchase 3.2
million tons of recycled glass annually, which is re-melted and repurposed for
use in the production of new containers and fiberglass products.
Lessens the demand for energy — Energy costs drop about 2-3% for
every 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process.
Cuts CO2 emissions — for every six tons of recycled container
glass used, a ton of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is reduced. A relative
10% increase in cullet reduces particulates by 8%, nitrogen oxide by 4%, and
sulphur oxides by 10%.
Extends furnace life — including cullet in the manufacturing mix
makes it less corrosive and lowers the melting temperature (from 2800 degrees
F. to 2600 degrees F.), prolonging furnace life.
No processing by-products — Glass recycling is a closed-loop
system, creating no additional waste or by-products.
Metals recycling is
an increasingly significant contributor to environmental and manufacturing
health in the UK. Local spaces are protected from discarded debris, a
huge workforce is kept in employment and energy is routinely saved through the
support of the UK metals recycling industry.
For these reasons
we’ve assembled the following guide – utilising our industry expertise – on
everything to do with metal recycling.
How to recycle metal
Not only can
reusing excess mined materials help to prevent physical waste in the environment,
by reducing waste, the need for manufacturing processes to replace and forge
new materials is eliminated.
If you have a
collection of valuable metals, you have a few options:
For metals like aluminium or tin cans, there may be a collection program
in your local area.
Many metals need to be taken to an appropriate recycling centre which
states its ability to recycle or dispose of the materials properly.
Alternatively, you can bring your metals to a drop-off centre or scrap
dealer which should accept a variety of materials for recycling.
like these will pay you for recyclable scrap metal, the most commonly accepted
types being aluminium, brass, and copper, iron and steel. Every metal is
unique in its type, requiring a specific recycling process and reclaiming
Ceramic is an inorganic compound, non-metallic solid material
comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview
of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science.
Ceramics can be made I a variety of ways one example is
slip casting. Slip casting is when slip, liquid clay, is poured into a plaster mould.
The water in the slip is drawn out of the slip, leaving an inside layer of
solid clay. When this is thick enough, the excess slip can be removed from the
mould. When dry, the solid clay can then also be removed. The slip used in slip
casting is often liquefied with a substance that reduces the need for
additional water to soften the slip; this prevents excessive shrinkage which
occurs when a piece containing a lot of water dries.
Ceramic shell casting
Another example of ceramic processes is called ceramic
shell casting. Ceramic shell casting which involves silica, zirconia and other refractory
material which are currently used in metal parts industry for net casting,
forming precision shell moulds for molten metal casting
Rubber life cycle
Once rubber has been used the can re-use the rubber by
re-treading tires they also use it in non-automotive engineering and in latex
products. They use rubber in footwear and belting and hose. However they are
also used in other miscellaneous product and items.
Conformity of legislation
This report will also be focusing on the conformity of
legislation, IP44 is a coding system which is defined in international standard
IEC 60529. IP codes refer to the degree of protection against intrusion of
solids or water in electrical enclosures. The code always consist of the IP
plus two numbers and optionally another letter. The first number refers to the
degree of protection against solids while the second number refers to the
degree of protection against water.
The scale goes from 0 9no protection) to 6 (dust tight)
in the first digit. The second digit goes from 0 (not protected) to 9
(immiscible beyond one meter.)
4 as the first digit: protected against most wires,
screws, tools and fingers 4 as the second digit: protected against water
splashing the enclosure from any direction.
When it comes to bathroom lighting, a rating of IP44
means the lighting can be used anywhere in the bathroom, with the exception of
right inside the bath or shower stall. Lighting in this area, also called zone
0, must be IP67 or completely immiscible. IP44-rated lighting may be used above
the bath or shower staring at about 2 ½ yards from floor level. IP rating is also known as Ingress Protection or
International Protection ratings which are defined to the international
standard of EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989). These
standards are used to define the levels of sealing effectiveness of electrical
enclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies such as dirt and water.
The rating consists
of the letters IP followed by 2 digits, the first digit stands for the
level of protection that the enclosure provides against solid
bodies, the second digit describes the degree of protection of the equipment
inside the enclosure against water, for example:
= First Digit – Solids
IP65 = Second Digit
Here is a useful website to understand the IP ratings.
As well as IP rating they also have IK ratings which is
kinetic impact. The IK Code
(otherwise known as Impact Protection Rating) consists of the letters IK,
followed by two digits. The two digits identify the level of protection a piece
of equipment offers. The numbers show how much force it can with stand when it
is drop on the product. Here is an example;
10.0 Kg impacting from a height of 350mm= 35 Joules- IK11
means that it can with stand a force of 10.0Kg from a height of 350mm which
equals 35 Joules of impact is forced upon the product. This means if it can
with stand this impact it has a rating of IK11 or higher.
Health and safety
Firstly, before the light is sent to the shops or
supermarkets the light has to meet the British Standards Institution otherwise the light will not be able to
leave the factory.
main requirement is BS
EN 1838: 2013 4.2 which is involuntary for the light to be just bright enough
for people to see and escape “50% of the illuminance must be available within 5
seconds and the full value within 60 seconds of supply failure.” This come from
Lighting Level Requirements. Every “escape route must have at least 2
luminaires, to provide some light in the event of luminaire failure.” This
comes from Stage 4 Escape Route
Here is a table of
different bulkhead lights and there IP rating and the positives and negatives
about the product:
round black outdoor bulkhead light
rating, suitable for outdoor lighting costs £12.50 GBP
suitable for outside use can be used on walls and ceilings, IP44 rated.
only protected against splashes of water.
end up rusting
light will only be useful for only certain jobs.
BRACKENHEATH ISPOT LED DRIVERLESS BULKHEAD WHITE
/ SILVER 20W (4206J
54 rating, not too suitable for outdoor use.
Protected from limited dust ingress.
protected against splashes of water. Could end up rusting
light is suitable for outdoor use however not a lot of water can be pressured
LUCECO MOSI LED 3-HOUR
EMERGENCY LIGHTING BULKHEAD WHITE 14W (7868H)
65 rating, suitable for outdoor use. Costs £62.99 GBP.
light is energy efficient, weatherproof and light weight.
biodegrades in light so will have to be replaced.
light is weatherproof so good for outdoor use however it will need to be
replace once in a while.
21586 Bow IP66 Oval Polished Aluminium Nautical Bulkhead
rating suitable for outdoor use. Also good protection against dust. Costs £45.00 GBP
Polished aluminium finish with a clear glass diffuser –
great for a rustic
is suitable for outdoor use and around dust however it does eventually
Rubber seal to protect it from weathering and corroding
Here I have disassembled the bulkhead light and
followed the manufactures guide to fully disassemble the product. I have also
done the engineering drawings of the bulkhead light and done a disassembly drawing
with step by step instructions and a breakdown of the materials. I used
appropriate PPE at all times and selected the correct tool for each part of the
disassembly as required.