Introduction Filipinos identify with a religion. Catholics comprise approximately

Introduction ***include distress***Religion is observed worldwide. It is a vital part of many societies and individuals (McCullough & Willoughby, 2009, as cited by Park & Yoo, 2016; Paloutzian & Park, 2005, cited by Power & McKinney, 2014). Congruently, Luna (20015) professed that “religion, along with art and science, counts as one of the most fundamental and pervasive aspects of human civilization” (p. 1). As William James (1902) puts it, religion is “an essential organ of our life, performing a function which no other portion of our nature can so successfully satisfy” (as cited by Singh & Bano, 2017). This holds true especially in the context of Filipinos, considering that religion is part of their identity. According to a 2010 census conducted by the National Statistics Office, a majority of Filipinos identify with a religion. Catholics comprise approximately 81% of the population. The remaining percentage consists of other Christian groups at approximately 9%, Muslims constitute approximately 6% of the population, while the other 4% belong to other groups (i.e various animistic and syncretic religions of the Lumad, an indigenous people) or did not report affiliation with any religion.Another phenomenon experienced around the world is stress. Stress and distress are two similar ideas, often used interchangeably. Stress, for most, has negative connotations. Although, according to Selye (1956), stress itself is just the body’s response to stressors or changes. Selye defined two types of stress; eustress (positive stress) and distress (negative stress). Distress may manifest when individuals are faced with challenging situations perceived as things they cannot successfully cope with. It is also characterized by feelings of anxiety, depressive behavior, may be acute or chronic in nature, and is generally upsetting. According to Lesniak, Rudman, Rector and Elkin (2006), stressful life experiences adversely impact one’s physical and psychological health. Previous studies have identified and organized stressful life events into two general categories: major life events and minor life events. Lesniak et al. (2006) also cited Lazarus and Folkman (1984) in stating that a personal life experience can become a “stressful life event” depending on how the experience is perceived and processed by the individual.Religiosity         Before society viewed it with positive regard, religion was thought to be a mental illness symptom. Jean Charcot and Sigmund Freud linked religion with neurosis (Verghese, 2008). Freud (1927/1961) argued that people consequently embrace religion when faced with troubles. Thus, he believed that religion provides two sense of comfort and protection – against the world and its dangers and against threats from human instinct itself (cited by Pargament, 1997). Moreover, Marx (1844) critiqued religion and claimed that it is the “opium of the people” as it creates an “illusory happiness”. Research results over the years suggest that religion is related to various favorable outcomes and is beneficial to individuals involved in it (McCullough & Willoughby, 2009, as cited by Park & Yoo, 2016). Moreover, similar to Freud’s claim that “people look to religion for protection” from the dangers of the world and human instinct itself (Pargament, 1997), Tabak and Mickelson (2009) stated in their study that people often rely on religion to get help when faced with negative life events. Consequently, these studies ignited more researchers’ interest in the role of religiosity in mental health.Types of Religiosity. Different studies lead to various approaches and perspectives on religiosity.  Allport and Ross (1967) classified religiosity into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic orientation. Individuals, who exhibit intrinsic orientation, see their religion as an ultimate goal and a framework of their lives. On the other hand, extrinsic orientation, is characterized by using religion to satisfy other motives and non-religious goals. Dimensions of Religiosity. In another study, Levin, Taylor, and Chatters (1995) described religiosity as having three dimensions, namely organizational, non-organizational, and subjective-religious practices (cited by Chokkanathan, 2013). Firstly, organizational religiosity is characterized by church attendance, secondly, non-organizational religiosity denotes private religious practices (i.e personal devotions, reciting a prayer, and reading holy books), and lastly, subjective-religious practices refers to the importance of religion to one’s life (Chokkanathan, 2013). Ellison (1991) posited that the three dimensions of religiosity positively relates and forms religious identity (cited by Chokkanathan, 2013).Religiosity in the Philippines. According to Miller (1996), organized religion in the Philippines began as early as the 1300s with the spreading of Islam from the islands of Indonesia. Islam was one of the only religions in the Philippines until 1565, when Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, along with the Spaniards, introduced Christianity. A small group of only 800 were the first after Magellan helped cure the ill grandson of the Chief of Cebu, who then allowed them to “mass baptize” his people. If not for the Spaniards the Philippines would have been a mostly Muslim country (Russel, 2010). Psychological DistressPsychological distress is a concept that encompasses a variety of ideas. It is most commonly regarded as a range of troubling, negative symptoms. Mirowsky and Ross (2002) defined psychological distress as a negative emotional state typified by symptoms of depression and anxiety (as cited by Drapeau, Marchand & Beaulieu-Pre?vost, 2012). Psychological distress, in this way, could manifest through hopelessness, loss of interest, sadness, feeling tense, or feeling anxious. Similarly, Chalfant, Heller, Roberts, Briones, Aguirre-Hochbaum, and Farr  (1990) defined it as the “continuous experience of unhappiness, nervousness, irritability and problematic interpersonal relationships.” Psychological distress may be experienced through sadness, anxiety, and so on, but in severe cases, it may manifest through psychotic symptoms. Other ways psychological distress is understood is as a coping mechanism; Lerutla (2000) interprets it as the “emotional condition that one feels when it is necessary to cope with upsetting, frustrating or harmful situations.”