The immigration is the movement of entry an individual or group with intention of work or residence.
Historical discrimination, pointing the problems and examples of the integration of people in a different country, the reality with which an immigrant lives in the country of arrival, such as racism, xenophobia and the stereotypes attributed to them, and their causes and consequences.
Forms of discrimination migrants and/or minority ethnic individuals experience
Immigration is the movement of entry of a person, from one country to other with intent to work or residence. Migration is also the result of individual or family decisions, and part of the social process. Designated as a movement of populations it is a sign of economic, social and cultural relations between the countries. In general, the factors that the migration process originates are related to labor issues (search of job and living conditions) and to natural catastrophes (which most originate in forced migration).
Discrimination is the practice of distinction against a person or group which results in inequality and injustice, when we approach it, discrimination claim to distinguish in relation to the legal and social dimension. In its original sense, the word derived from the Latin ‘discriminare’ means to separate, to differentiate. In social terms it can be characterized as (positive and negative), where the individual is systematically denied the same opportunities conferred on others of different or specific characteristics related to them, such as colour, race, ethnicity, national origin, language, political beliefs or religious, gender, sexual orientation, age or physical and mental limitations. In relation to legal terms, there are different mechanisms to favor or disadvantage certain groups of people, a basic level of positive discrimination and citizenship in a particular State or Country, since it offers a series of privileges but also a series of obligations.
Discrimination also refers to the free use of public services, such as transportation services, museums, public swimming pools and public services for a certain age group, or special areas for women and children.
Based on these preconditions, discrimination can be defined as systematically distinct and hierarchically evaluative (positively or negatively) perception and treatment of people, based not on their actual characteristics, but on stereotypes attributed to a particular social group, formed by strata such as age, gender, religion, skin colour, culture, and physical and mental limitations. Thus, racism can be understood as a specific form of discrimination based on visible aspects of social distinction.
Ms. Rodriguez Pizarro reported to the UN on human rights that ‘people whose color, physical appearance, dress, accent or religion are different from those of majority in the host country are often subjected to physical violence and other violations of their rights, independently of their legal status. (Press kit: Issues)
Nativism and is practice where some governments and public entities, in order to deny health services, employment, and other services to migrants, and it becomes more difficult when these individuals face problems related to their legal situation, in most of the times they arrive at a country and they are no respected and be treated as inferior, having access to hospitals, housing, work, education and social life denied / difficult.
Manifestations of ethnic minorities, resulting from poor living conditions due to the lack access to services and job/work, result in bad integration, thus creating attitudes of racism and xenophobia in society.
Racism arises as the social discrimination of people or group based on the concept that there are different human races and that one and superior to another, it is also a political argument in favor of the exclusion of migrants, it causes to hostile response to migrants.
An example of Racism written an article about Brexit: “Hate crimes against UK minorities since BREXIT”: reported by (Salandy, T)
– Attack against Polish Community,
– Attacks against Muslim,
– Attacks Against ‘Remain’ Campaigner and Journalists Who Cover Racist Incidents,
– BBC Reporter Sima Kotecha Called One of UK’s Most Racist Words,
– Sikh British Man Told to Go to Pakistan.
Modern and contemporary time was important in the fight against racism, the contacts between different people and cultures intensified with greater openness and understanding. In the 19th century, slavery was abolished and the fight against social discrimination began.
Racism goes against the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirms the equality of all people. On March 21, the International Day of Racial Discrimination is celebrated, and since 2007, any form of discrimination based on race or ethnicity and punishable (people, groups, organizations, etc.). (Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
The cultural differences that exist between people, in language, clothing, and traditions are the way society is organized in the world, but they are sometimes treated with strangeness and hostility.
Ethnocentrism is the way of facing cultural diversity, in which there is a disenchantment of different cultural habits, leading to disrespect, depreciation, and intolerance by who is different, it is also the view that own culture is better than anyone else culture, consists of evaluating other cultures from the perspective of one owner.
An example of Ethnocentrism is: Nazi Germany” Hitler believed that Jews, as well as people belonging to some other communities, were all inferior to his ethnicity, and did not deserve to live. He had thousands and thousands of innocent people slaughtered in concentration camps, all because they weren’t of his ‘pure’ race, which was, according to him, superior among all.” ( Varneka, 2014)
Racial prejudice is also related to other concepts such as Xenophobia, Homophobia, Bullying, etc.
Xenophobia “fear of strangers” is the abomination of foreign people/things, using discriminatory actions (hatred, intolerance, and aversion by foreign individuals), It is a form of prejudice, caused by a disease or disorder, of fear of the unknown.
An example of Xenophobia we use in our everyday life but without knowing is:
– We need to enforce our Borders,
– Learn to speak English,
– Muslims are Terrorists,
– No, where are you really from?
– Do not go to X neighborhood, it is too dangerous,
– I am not like other (different Nationality).
Xenophobia does not work alone, it requires the participation of politicians, the media and us. (Lopez, 2016)
The classification of social order happens when the skin color and social origin gain, thanks to a racist culture, these gain meanings values and different meanings. The most common differences are skin color, hair type, facial conformation, genetics and so on, we use the term race to identify a cultural or ethnic group without any common biological standard relationships.
For example, humans were divided into three major groups: (Why the Myth of White, Red, Black and Yellow Persists)
– Mongoloid/ Yellow Race (peoples of Southeast Asia, Oceania, American continent (Eskimo and Amerindians);
– Caucasoid/ White Race (European Continent, North Africa and part of the Asian continent “the Middle East and North of the Indian Subcontinent”);
– Negroid/Black Race (Sub-Saharan Africa).
This division by color, calling ourselves the white race, black race, and yellow race must stop. Obviously, science has now proven we are one race, and we are all human being. (Why the Myth of White, Red, Black and Yellow Persists)
Consequences of discrimination:
The effects of discrimination can cause, loss of motivation, reduction of individual rights, limited opportunities, limited access to services and in some cases mental illness caused by the stress.
The role of social communication:
The group of immigrants who suffer most from discrimination is Eastern Europeans and Africans because the laws of Central Europe countries have imposed visas:
– Shortage of labor,
– Because of the growing maladaptation of training, governments realize that they should facilitate the entry of immigrants into the labor market, especially those who are qualified and able to adapt to all kinds of situations.
The success of a comprehensive approach to the immigration problems depends, therefore, on several methods that must be taken in the way that these immigrants can feel integrated into the host country with:
– Linguistic training,
– Introductory programs for newly arrived immigrants,
– Participation of immigrants in civil, cultural and political life. ( Immigrant Integration, 2017)
The discrimination is the act of considering certain characteristics that one person has in relation to another.
Discrimination consists in the idea that certain properties possessed by certain people are sufficient for the interests of such persons not to be treated in the same way (i.e., they do not have the same rights).
Discrimination is not the same as admitting that people have different characteristics, the evaluation of individuals should be personalized i.e. people should be analyzed case by case because each one has different characteristics because we are all different, but all human being.