Introduction: biotechnology. It is the uses of cells and


Biotechnology is the use of
biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to
improve the quality of human life. The earliest biotechnologists were farmers
who developed improved species of plants and animals by cross pollination or
cross breeding. In recent years, biotechnology has expanded in sophistication,
scope, and applicability.

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At its
simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology – biotechnology harnesses
cellular and bio molecular processes to develop technologies and products that
help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

has many classes include;


marine biotechnology

industrial biotechnology

agriculture biotechnology




Medical biotechnology:

Medical biotechnology is also known as red biotechnology or
health biotechnology. It is the uses of cells and its materials to manufacture
pharmaceuticals like enzymes, antibiotics and vaccines and diagnostic products
that are used to treat and to defend against diseases.

Application of medical biotechnology:

Ø  Pharmacology

Ø  Gene therapy

Ø  Stem cells

Ø  Tissue engineering


Ø  Pharmacology:

The study of drug, their interaction with molecules present
in body and their effect on the body is known as pharmacology.


growth hormone

blood clotting factor

Gene pill

Monoclonal antibodies


Ø  Gene

To treat diseases DNA
is used as pharmaceutical agent. This is named as gene therapy because DNA used
to altering gene in cell of an individual as therapy to cure diseases. DNA
which encodes a therapeutics and functional gene to replaced mutated gene is the
most common form of gene

Ø  Stem

The cell that has
potential to become any type of cell in the human body is known as stem cell.
It is also known as the class of undifferentiated cells which have ability to
differentiate into specialized cell types. Under the suitable conditions, Stem
cells are fixed up into the affected area of body and replace that affected

The two main sources
from where stem cells come are;

Embryonic stem cells

Adult stem cells

Under the suitable
conditions, Stem cells are fixed up into the affected area of body and replace
that affected area.

Ø  Tissue

Methods from which we
can replace or repair damage or disease causing tissues by using natural,
synthetic or semi synthetic tissue mimics. These mimics are may be fully
functional or will grow in required functionality.  This usually occurs in or on tissue scaffold
but it can be grown on or in other organisms.

 Social acceptance or ethical issues:

Biotechnology produced
new potential for treating diseases and manipulating our genetic ancestry. Now
a day biotechnology is widely used for the medicinal purposes. There is a great
potential for ethical issues since biotechnology transform living organisms for
human purposes. This advancement in biotechnology has benefits and risks as
well. Biotechnology reform;

Ø  Drug
manufacturing process

Ø  Diagnosis
and treatment

Ø  Production
of animal models for human diseases.

Ethical issues in drug

When drug companies
were doing survival trials, no one wants to be in the placebo group. So it’s
the ethical issue that it is right to have placebo group. Usually these
clinical trial were apply on third world countries where people can’t afford
these drugs and maybe these drugs have negative effect on these individuals.

Ethical issues of gene

Maybe the gene, tissue
or organ introduced into human may have negative effect on human or may cause
disease. Or maybe these organs, tissues or gene transfer from animal which are
restricted in religions.