INTRODUCTION be effective and helpful towards manufacturing companies in

INTRODUCTION OF STUDYIntroduction     The manufacturing industrynowadays emphasizes the best quality of products for the market. Each manufacturingcompany always keeps their product in line with today’s technologicaldevelopments. Hence, principles such as Just In Time (JIT), 5S Implementation,Kanban systems and many more are crucial and widely used in order to ensure themanufacture and production process of products are running smoothly and alsofollowed the time duration that have been decided.

     The Kanban system is generallyrecognized as a system that eliminates labor and inventory waste. This systemapplies the concept where the production of a product is based on consumersupply and demand only. Instead of estimating the number of the product neededby the market and producing based on that amount, Kanban produces products indirect relation to the number requested by the market. Besides, the system alsoensure the production run smoothly and continuously.      Most of the people that involvedin manufacturing industries nowadays are aware of the importance of thisprinciple and started to apply it for their companies in order to compete withthe other manufacturing companies. This is because the competitive spirit amongpeople nowadays are very strong due to the modernization era where successfulbecomes a benchmark in life. In conclusion, all these concepts were proven tobe effective and helpful towards manufacturing companies in order to increasetheir rates of production and ensure a continuous development for the company.ProblemStatement     Every workflow or process of productionusually continuously and complicated as it may be longer process and shorterprocess.

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However, by implement Kanban system, it helps to visualize andincrease the understanding so that it becomes more apparent for the workers.   Purposeand Scope of Work     This purpose of this projectis to apply Kanban system and ensure its effectiveness towards the workflow andat the same time provide exposure about Kanban system to the workers.                   THEORY     Kanban (??)is literally defines as signboard or billboard in Japanese and Chinese. Kanbansystem or known as “pull system” is a system that apply concept of organizingand controlling professional services work for lean manufacturing andjust-in-time manufacturing (JIT). It is a part of pull system that limiting thework progress and signalling when capacity is available to start new work orcan be defined as controls the product, quantity, duration and many else thatrelated to the production in order to ensure that it produce the exactly thatneeded and no waste of raw materials and also costs.

     An industrial engineer at Toyota namedTaiichi Ohno developed Kanban in late 1940s in order to improve manufacturingefficiency. Then, it was developed by David J Anderson (Lean Kanban, Inc CEO)in collaboration with the global community of Kanban enthusiasts, coaches andtrainers. It was published in 2010 and start from that, all Lean Kanbanprograms and curricular are based on Kanban method.

     Kanban systems work commonly by simplevisual devices in a form of cards with data printed on it. Various shape,content, size can be made for the cards. However, nowadays it has developedinto more modern and technological forms such as emails, sensors, electronicdashboards and so on. Furthermore, it can be applied to both material andproduct flow within a site and material flow between suppliers and customers,or any partners of the supply chain.     Besides that, there are also six rulesthat Toyota has formulated for the application of Kanban which are: The processes of withdraw items for customer (downstream) in the precise amounts specified by the Kanban.

The items produce by supplier (upstream) in the precise amounts and sequences specified by the Kanban. No items are made or moved without a Kanban system. Each item should always be accompany by a Kanban system Defects and incorrect amounts are never sent to the next downstream process. The number of Kanbans is reduced carefully to lower inventories and to reveal problems.    There are three core concept of Kanban.

Firstly, visualize workflowwhere the entire work were divided into segments or states, visualized andwrite each on a card and put in a columns on a wall to indicate where the itemis in the workflow. Secondly is limit Work in Progress (WIP). Limit Work inProgress (WIP) where the limits of the quantity of production were decided thatcan be in progress at each workflow segment. Lastly is measure the Lead Time.Lead time known as cycle time where the average time to complete one item.Hence, by measure the lead time, it can optimize the process of production.     Kanban that also known as pull systembrings in concept to respond to the needs of customers. In other words, theconcept of building or produce products to actual demand and not to forecast.

Besides, pull systems also replacing only what has been consumed in order tocontrol the flow of resources in a production process. Pull production systemsare often compared to the push system of production where push system is asystem where the production is pushed from one operation to the next throughthe next without considered it will be needed or not.                      DATA ANALYSIS1.    ‘Pull (or Kanban) Systems’ and thetraditional ‘Push Systems’ are two categories of manufacturing operations insupply chains.

Highlight the advantages and disadvantages of:i.      Push-basedsupply chains ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES High quantity of inventory Produces many scrap before errors are discovered Priority based on producer Large and complex database required maintenance Longer reaction time to changing market place Requires more  effort in order to maintain effective product flow Demand are decide based on approximation    ii.     Pull-basedsupply chains ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Limited inventory Required a balanced systems Priority based on customer Required a longer setup times Ensure and improve cash flow Any defects may lead to unhappy customers Reduced lead times Difficult to take advantage of economies of scale  Implementation of a Push-Pull Strategyhas gained more attention of some practitioners. Evaluate this more recenthybrid strategy of combining the two, Push-Pull systems.     There are many stages applied for thesupply chain.

Usually, push-based manner was operated for the initial stageswhile the remaining stages employ a pull-based strategy. Several factors wereapplied during the pull-based strategy in order to achieve the appropriatedesign such as product complexity, manufacturing lead times, supplier andmanufacturer relationships and also the location of the push-pull boundary. Aswe know, for the first stage, usually various design were produced, however,the simple and shorter lead time were usually chosen to be produced as it canreduce the cost.

Besides, a good relationship between supplier and manufactureralso needed to be taken into account as it can help to simplify the process ofpurchase of materials. Lastly, an appropriate design depends on the location ofthe push-pull boundary according to the different production such as furnituremanufacturers usually locate the boundary at the production point while Delllocates the boundary at the assembly point. Push Portion Pull Portion Low uncertainty High uncertainty Focus on cost minimization Focus on service level Long lead times Short cycle time Table 1.1 : Impact of the Push-Pull Strategy 2.

     What are the Kanban principles, practices andrules?Theapplication of Kanban principles, practices and rules will make the workflowbecome more effective and more benefits into it. There are several basicprinciples of Kanban, which are:i.       Startwith what you do nowKanban method can be done simultaneously withthe current workflow or process in order to ensure the process or workflowbecome more effective and can introduce positive change over time. ii.      Agreeto pursue incremental, evolutionary changeKanban can make changes until it meet minimalresistance for the systems. Hence, any evolutionary changes and continuoussmall incremental are encourage.     iii.

    Respectthe current process, roles, responsibilities & titlesKanban also encourage to do not set aside thecurrent process, roles, responsibilities and titles as it may exists value init. Hence, only small changes are recommended for the systems. iv.    Encourageacts of leadership at all levelsEveryone encourage to develop and acts of leadership inKanban systems as Kanban system espoused in many methodologies.Besides,there are also core properties for Kanban systems which are:i.       Visualizethe workflowVisualize the workflow enable workers to knowthe process even from the beginning to the final process more effective as itcan be seen clearly. Besides, Kanban system aim is to make positive change tooptimize the flow of work through the system.

The process of visualize theworkflow also unlimited and widespread.   ii.      LimitWIPLimited work-in-progress at each state in theworkflow enable for the work to step into the next stage when there isavailable capacity within the local work-in-progress limit. Thus, theseconstraints will make any problem areas can be easily detected and resolved.  iii.    ManageflowKanban system implements a cycle workflowwhere for any changes to make, it must look ‘through the value of currentworkflow, analyzing the problem areas, defining then decide the solution. iv.

    Makeprocess policies explicitThe process of workflow need to be explained,published and socialized either explicitly or succinctly. An understandingprocess for the workers enable for a successful discussion achieved. It makethe process of any changes run smoothly.   v.      ImprovecollaborativelyKanban can make teams improve theircollaboratively.

This is because when teams already have shared understandingof theories or workflow and also have a great teamwork, they are more likely tobe able to build a shared comprehension of a problem, hence able to suggestimprovement and alternative actions together. 3.    What are the key characteristics ofKanban that make it popular control system?                i.      Flexibility in planningKanban enable workers to plan their works invarious ways. Besides, every tasks at the stages must be completed in order toflow to the next state. Hence, this flexibility attracts people to use Kanbansystem.               ii.      Limits Work-In-Progress (WIP)Limits work-in-progress allow the process tobecome smoother and faster.

This is because it allow to reducing wait time,solve any problem areas with collaboration of the entire team, and evade stresson resources during the workflow state.              iii.      Pull approachPull approach usually define as the next teampulls work only when it is ready for it. In other words, the tasks were dividedfairly according to the stages and teams that responsible for it. So, the taskswere done by take turn within the stages.              iv.      Minimize cycle timeIn Kanban system, the time taken for theproduction in each tasks was measured so that the process can be optimized andshorten the cycle time.                 v.

      Continuous deliveryAs we all know, Kanban system applied conceptwhere it will produce only when it get demand from the customers Hence, itprovide a continuous delivery and also continuous interactions with thecustomer.              vi.      Visual metricsFuthermore, visualize of the workflow was theconcept of the Kanban system. Visualization of the workflow facilitate the workersto tracking the status and progress continually and also detect any problemareas in a shorter time.             vii.      Efficiency through focusThe scope of production becomes clear byfocusing on what a customer wants and needs. It can help to increase theefficiency of the production.

 4.    What are the benefits in using Kanbansystems?Kanban systems apply positive impactsand benefits which are:                i.      VersatilityKanbansystem central idea is communicating through visual signs. Every department orparts are able to visualize their workflow in any ways.

It is to ensure theworkflow easy to understand and detect any problems. Its versatility makes itsimple for the workers and workflow to move seamlessly across functions.               ii.

      Continuous developmentKanban’svisual system of project management give more chances to improve every actionsas it will be easier to review processes and make improvements or  solutions that cut waste, streamline workflowand also reduce overhead.              iii.      ResponsivenessKanbansystem makes it possible for the company or producer to respond more agilely tobusiness needs.

              iv.      Output may be continuously increasesLimitingwork-in-progress also apply in the Kanban system. Limiting WIP encourages teamsto work together and give cooperation in order to move work across the finishline and also eliminate any distraction of multitasking as much as possible.These will affects towards the collaboration and focus of the teams todevelopment and at the same time increase the output.               v.      Empowered teamsKanbansystem may help to increase and strengthen the cooperation among the teams.              vi.      The quality of products can be guaranteedKanbansystem focus more towards continuous development and also great cooperationamong the teams.

These factors help to give good effects towards the productionas the all the process and workflow are run smoothly..                   Table 1: Examples of models for Components DATE MODELS Date Built 1 2-Jan-17 JTE 7606 2-Jan-17 2 3-Jan-17 JTE 4001/02 7-Jan-17 3 4-Jan-17 JTE7043.NA 5-Jan-17   Figure1.0: Implementation of Kanban System               As shown in Figure 1.0, theworkflow of the project are visualize using notepad on the whiteboard.

Eachstage will be able to continue only after the  task at current stage have been accomplished.Every stages that have problems, will be go through technical review stageswhere the problem areas will be detected and a solution have to be decided inorder to restore the products. From the first stage by contacting the supplierand receiving the materials, it will undergo stage called component check whereall the receiving materials will be checks all the parameters such as thedimension. If any error occurred from the dimension, the materials can bereturn back to the supplier. A good quality of a product depends on thefoundation of the materials. Hence, the quality and dimension of the materialsare very important before start the process making of the components.

After itpassed the component check stage, the process of making will be begin until thefinalized products were released into the markets and customers.CONCLUSION     Kanban system has caught the attention ofmanufacturing industries as it is known by its effectiveness towards the production.Kanban system generally known as visualization of the workflow of production inmore attractive ways as it may be done by various notepad and attached it onthe whiteboard that called ‘Kanban board’. By visualize the workflow, anyproblems or defects of the materials/products can be seen easily. Hence, everytasks can be successfully completed before go through the next stage.      Based on the project, it can be seen thatthe Kanban Board shows the workflow of the production of the components in alarge quantity.

Thus, every stages from contacting the supplier, receiving thematerials, produce the components, testing the product and finally release theproduct to the market needs to be well maintained. Between every stages thereis technical review stage where the problem areas will be detected and solvebefore going to the next stage. This is to ensure every problems have beensolved before the products finalized and go out to the market.     In conclusion, Kanban system is verybeneficial to the manufacturing industries as in manufacturing industries,every products are produce in a large amount of quantity. Thus, Kanban systemhelps to enhance the improvement of production by reduce the cost but at thesame time well maintain the good quality of the products.