INTRODUCTION be effective and helpful towards manufacturing companies in



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     The manufacturing industry
nowadays emphasizes the best quality of products for the market. Each manufacturing
company always keeps their product in line with today’s technological
developments. Hence, principles such as Just In Time (JIT), 5S Implementation,
Kanban systems and many more are crucial and widely used in order to ensure the
manufacture and production process of products are running smoothly and also
followed the time duration that have been decided.

     The Kanban system is generally
recognized as a system that eliminates labor and inventory waste. This system
applies the concept where the production of a product is based on consumer
supply and demand only. Instead of estimating the number of the product needed
by the market and producing based on that amount, Kanban produces products in
direct relation to the number requested by the market. Besides, the system also
ensure the production run smoothly and continuously.

      Most of the people that involved
in manufacturing industries nowadays are aware of the importance of this
principle and started to apply it for their companies in order to compete with
the other manufacturing companies. This is because the competitive spirit among
people nowadays are very strong due to the modernization era where successful
becomes a benchmark in life. In conclusion, all these concepts were proven to
be effective and helpful towards manufacturing companies in order to increase
their rates of production and ensure a continuous development for the company.


     Every workflow or process of production
usually continuously and complicated as it may be longer process and shorter
process. However, by implement Kanban system, it helps to visualize and
increase the understanding so that it becomes more apparent for the workers.



and Scope of Work

     This purpose of this project
is to apply Kanban system and ensure its effectiveness towards the workflow and
at the same time provide exposure about Kanban system to the workers.





















     Kanban (??)
is literally defines as signboard or billboard in Japanese and Chinese. Kanban
system or known as “pull system” is a system that apply concept of organizing
and controlling professional services work for lean manufacturing and
just-in-time manufacturing (JIT). It is a part of pull system that limiting the
work progress and signalling when capacity is available to start new work or
can be defined as controls the product, quantity, duration and many else that
related to the production in order to ensure that it produce the exactly that
needed and no waste of raw materials and also costs.

     An industrial engineer at Toyota named
Taiichi Ohno developed Kanban in late 1940s in order to improve manufacturing
efficiency. Then, it was developed by David J Anderson (Lean Kanban, Inc CEO)
in collaboration with the global community of Kanban enthusiasts, coaches and
trainers. It was published in 2010 and start from that, all Lean Kanban
programs and curricular are based on Kanban method.

     Kanban systems work commonly by simple
visual devices in a form of cards with data printed on it. Various shape,
content, size can be made for the cards. However, nowadays it has developed
into more modern and technological forms such as emails, sensors, electronic
dashboards and so on. Furthermore, it can be applied to both material and
product flow within a site and material flow between suppliers and customers,
or any partners of the supply chain.

     Besides that, there are also six rules
that Toyota has formulated for the application of Kanban which are:

processes of withdraw items for customer (downstream) in the precise
amounts specified by the Kanban.
The items
produce by supplier (upstream) in the precise amounts and sequences
specified by the Kanban.
items are made or moved without a Kanban system.
item should always be accompany by a Kanban system
and incorrect amounts are never sent to the next downstream process.
number of Kanbans is reduced carefully to lower inventories and to reveal

There are three core concept of Kanban. Firstly, visualize workflow
where the entire work were divided into segments or states, visualized and
write each on a card and put in a columns on a wall to indicate where the item
is in the workflow. Secondly is limit Work in Progress (WIP). Limit Work in
Progress (WIP) where the limits of the quantity of production were decided that
can be in progress at each workflow segment. Lastly is measure the Lead Time.
Lead time known as cycle time where the average time to complete one item.
Hence, by measure the lead time, it can optimize the process of production.

     Kanban that also known as pull system
brings in concept to respond to the needs of customers. In other words, the
concept of building or produce products to actual demand and not to forecast.
Besides, pull systems also replacing only what has been consumed in order to
control the flow of resources in a production process. Pull production systems
are often compared to the push system of production where push system is a
system where the production is pushed from one operation to the next through
the next without considered it will be needed or not.






1.    ‘Pull (or Kanban) Systems’ and the
traditional ‘Push Systems’ are two categories of manufacturing operations in
supply chains. Highlight the advantages and disadvantages of:

supply chains



quantity of inventory

many scrap before errors are discovered

based on producer

and complex database required maintenance

reaction time to changing market place

more  effort in order to maintain
effective product flow

are decide based on approximation



supply chains




a balanced systems

based on customer

a longer setup times

and improve cash flow

defects may lead to unhappy customers

lead times

to take advantage of economies of scale


Implementation of a Push-Pull Strategy
has gained more attention of some practitioners. Evaluate this more recent
hybrid strategy of combining the two, Push-Pull systems.

     There are many stages applied for the
supply chain. Usually, push-based manner was operated for the initial stages
while the remaining stages employ a pull-based strategy. Several factors were
applied during the pull-based strategy in order to achieve the appropriate
design such as product complexity, manufacturing lead times, supplier and
manufacturer relationships and also the location of the push-pull boundary. As
we know, for the first stage, usually various design were produced, however,
the simple and shorter lead time were usually chosen to be produced as it can
reduce the cost. Besides, a good relationship between supplier and manufacturer
also needed to be taken into account as it can help to simplify the process of
purchase of materials. Lastly, an appropriate design depends on the location of
the push-pull boundary according to the different production such as furniture
manufacturers usually locate the boundary at the production point while Dell
locates the boundary at the assembly point.



Low uncertainty

High uncertainty

Focus on cost minimization

Focus on service level

Long lead times

Short cycle time

Table 1.1 : Impact of the Push-Pull Strategy


2.     What are the Kanban principles, practices and

application of Kanban principles, practices and rules will make the workflow
become more effective and more benefits into it. There are several basic
principles of Kanban, which are:

i.       Start
with what you do now

Kanban method can be done simultaneously with
the current workflow or process in order to ensure the process or workflow
become more effective and can introduce positive change over time.


ii.      Agree
to pursue incremental, evolutionary change

Kanban can make changes until it meet minimal
resistance for the systems. Hence, any evolutionary changes and continuous
small incremental are encourage.





iii.    Respect
the current process, roles, responsibilities & titles

Kanban also encourage to do not set aside the
current process, roles, responsibilities and titles as it may exists value in
it. Hence, only small changes are recommended for the systems.


iv.    Encourage
acts of leadership at all levels

Everyone encourage to develop and acts of leadership in
Kanban systems as Kanban system espoused in many methodologies.

there are also core properties for Kanban systems which are:

i.       Visualize
the workflow

Visualize the workflow enable workers to know
the process even from the beginning to the final process more effective as it
can be seen clearly. Besides, Kanban system aim is to make positive change to
optimize the flow of work through the system. The process of visualize the
workflow also unlimited and widespread.  


ii.      Limit

Limited work-in-progress at each state in the
workflow enable for the work to step into the next stage when there is
available capacity within the local work-in-progress limit. Thus, these
constraints will make any problem areas can be easily detected and resolved.


iii.    Manage

Kanban system implements a cycle workflow
where for any changes to make, it must look ‘through the value of current
workflow, analyzing the problem areas, defining then decide the solution.


iv.    Make
process policies explicit

The process of workflow need to be explained,
published and socialized either explicitly or succinctly. An understanding
process for the workers enable for a successful discussion achieved. It make
the process of any changes run smoothly.



v.      Improve

Kanban can make teams improve their
collaboratively. This is because when teams already have shared understanding
of theories or workflow and also have a great teamwork, they are more likely to
be able to build a shared comprehension of a problem, hence able to suggest
improvement and alternative actions together.


3.    What are the key characteristics of
Kanban that make it popular control system?

Flexibility in planning

Kanban enable workers to plan their works in
various ways. Besides, every tasks at the stages must be completed in order to
flow to the next state. Hence, this flexibility attracts people to use Kanban


Limits Work-In-Progress (WIP)

Limits work-in-progress allow the process to
become smoother and faster. This is because it allow to reducing wait time,
solve any problem areas with collaboration of the entire team, and evade stress
on resources during the workflow state.


Pull approach

Pull approach usually define as the next team
pulls work only when it is ready for it. In other words, the tasks were divided
fairly according to the stages and teams that responsible for it. So, the tasks
were done by take turn within the stages.


Minimize cycle time

In Kanban system, the time taken for the
production in each tasks was measured so that the process can be optimized and
shorten the cycle time.




Continuous delivery

As we all know, Kanban system applied concept
where it will produce only when it get demand from the customers Hence, it
provide a continuous delivery and also continuous interactions with the


Visual metrics

Futhermore, visualize of the workflow was the
concept of the Kanban system. Visualization of the workflow facilitate the workers
to tracking the status and progress continually and also detect any problem
areas in a shorter time.


Efficiency through focus

The scope of production becomes clear by
focusing on what a customer wants and needs. It can help to increase the
efficiency of the production.


4.    What are the benefits in using Kanban

Kanban systems apply positive impacts
and benefits which are:


system central idea is communicating through visual signs. Every department or
parts are able to visualize their workflow in any ways. It is to ensure the
workflow easy to understand and detect any problems. Its versatility makes it
simple for the workers and workflow to move seamlessly across functions.


Continuous development

visual system of project management give more chances to improve every actions
as it will be easier to review processes and make improvements or  solutions that cut waste, streamline workflow
and also reduce overhead.



system makes it possible for the company or producer to respond more agilely to
business needs.


Output may be continuously increases

work-in-progress also apply in the Kanban system. Limiting WIP encourages teams
to work together and give cooperation in order to move work across the finish
line and also eliminate any distraction of multitasking as much as possible.
These will affects towards the collaboration and focus of the teams to
development and at the same time increase the output.


Empowered teams

system may help to increase and strengthen the cooperation among the teams.


The quality of products can be guaranteed

system focus more towards continuous development and also great cooperation
among the teams. These factors help to give good effects towards the production
as the all the process and workflow are run smoothly.




















Table 1: Examples of models for Components



Date Built







JTE 4001/02







1.0: Implementation of Kanban System


     As shown in Figure 1.0, the
workflow of the project are visualize using notepad on the whiteboard. Each
stage will be able to continue only after the  task at current stage have been accomplished.
Every stages that have problems, will be go through technical review stages
where the problem areas will be detected and a solution have to be decided in
order to restore the products. From the first stage by contacting the supplier
and receiving the materials, it will undergo stage called component check where
all the receiving materials will be checks all the parameters such as the
dimension. If any error occurred from the dimension, the materials can be
return back to the supplier. A good quality of a product depends on the
foundation of the materials. Hence, the quality and dimension of the materials
are very important before start the process making of the components. After it
passed the component check stage, the process of making will be begin until the
finalized products were released into the markets and customers.


     Kanban system has caught the attention of
manufacturing industries as it is known by its effectiveness towards the production.
Kanban system generally known as visualization of the workflow of production in
more attractive ways as it may be done by various notepad and attached it on
the whiteboard that called ‘Kanban board’. By visualize the workflow, any
problems or defects of the materials/products can be seen easily. Hence, every
tasks can be successfully completed before go through the next stage.

     Based on the project, it can be seen that
the Kanban Board shows the workflow of the production of the components in a
large quantity. Thus, every stages from contacting the supplier, receiving the
materials, produce the components, testing the product and finally release the
product to the market needs to be well maintained. Between every stages there
is technical review stage where the problem areas will be detected and solve
before going to the next stage. This is to ensure every problems have been
solved before the products finalized and go out to the market.

     In conclusion, Kanban system is very
beneficial to the manufacturing industries as in manufacturing industries,
every products are produce in a large amount of quantity. Thus, Kanban system
helps to enhance the improvement of production by reduce the cost but at the
same time well maintain the good quality of the products.