InformationSystems Use in BusinessTask 1InformationSystems (IS) are interrelated components working together to “collect, process,store and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination,control, analysis and visualization in an organisation.” (Prentice-Hall, 2012.)VisiCalcspreadsheet software was created by Robert Frankston and Dan Bricklin in 1979.It enabled employees to complete accounting tasks quicker, by automating theprocess. (D.J. Power, n.
d.). Today IS are used by organisations to makecommunication more seamless through internal and external communicationsbetween employees, employers and customers. Organisationsare reliant on IS as it displays how information passes through an organisationvia technology, processes and people. Five components come from this, “hardware,software, data, people, and process’ (Bourgeois, 2014) The first three fitunder technology however people and process are their own entities. Systemstheory is the study of the nature of systems, used as an outline to examine anygroup of objects that work together to produce something. Ludwig vonBertalanffy (1901-1972), known as one of the founders of the general systemtheory, questioned whether systems could be defined by their “inherent natureand characteristics” (Breen & Hussain, 2012). A human cannot be describedwith two characteristics like two legs or two arms, so systems shouldn’t belooked at by one characteristic.
You should look at what works together in thesystem to define it. Thesystems approach looks at subsystems and this is part of the system theory.Each system consists of a set of interacting subsystems (Constable and New,1976).
The reductionist way of thinking is to break something down to smallersubcomponents, until you get to the finer details and you can look at thesystem holistically. Subsystems share a common goal to together to create adesired outcome (Breen & Hussain, 2012). One concept is the input, which iswhat goes into the system. The process is another concept, where the output iscreated. The output is the desired outcome. (Cs.
unb.ca, 2017). Boundary is aconcept that can be described as something that is within the extent of thesystem and whatever interacts with the business (environment). It is importantto define the boundary of a system because it allows an organisation toseparate the system from the environment. It allows you to see what effects thesystem and what isn’t important to the system.
(Breen & Hussain, 2012).The systems thinking concepts allowyou to identify the key work processes carried out in manufacturing at SamsungElectronics. Samsung Electronics (SE) wasfounded in Suwon, Korea in 1969. (Samsung pk, 2017). It is the flagship ofSamsung Group. SE have advanced facilities supporting excellent manufacturingcapability.
Currently SE has assembly plants and sales networks in 79 countries.(News.samsung.
com). SE purpose is to create “quality products that enhanceconvenience”, as well as shaping the world with its “pursuit of ground-breakinginnovations’. This is summarised by their core principle, “inspire the world,create the future” (Samsung pk, 2017).
The innovative capability for Samsung isthe speed of product development and product innovation. Samsung consistentlycreate new or improved products.The plant factory of Samsung thatwill be explored is in Gumi, Korea.
It is a factory that is known for creatingthe company’s high-end smartphones. (Kovach, 2017). The manufacturing processat the factory is a mixture of mass and continuous processes using productlayout.
The service process type is mass services.The systems approach allows you tobreak down the manufacturing system to view the subsystems that exist. Thediagram below shows a visual representation of this at the Gumi, Korea factory. MANUFACTURING Samsung Electronics – Gumi, Korea Plant Factory Testing Assembly Packaging Input Output Threesubsystems exist inside the manufacturing system; Primary assembly, testing andpackaging (Segan, 2014). They all play arole in putting the phones together, so that they are ready to be shipped andsold to customers.
Thefirst stage of processing (assembly) begins when materials are input into thesystem. This process has been enhanced by usage of technology in the assembly. Automatedrobotic systems are used to carry out pre-programmed tasks like creating chipsand diodes from strips of plastic with ease. Once the robotic systems finish,the work is carried to the next workstation and workers will put the partstogether. Lastly, any excess material is removed from the product. (Segan,2014). The assembly process was made famous by Henry Ford.
Parts are worked onin a workstation and then moved to the next workstation. Parts are assembled ina sequence, so the product can be produced efficiently. Ford wantedtransportation of parts to be between convenient distances for it to beefficient. (Ford & Crowther 1922).The next sub-systemis testing and quality control. This is crucial in ensuring that the phones haveno faults. The product (output) will be tested against the specification.
Heremajority of the tests carried out are automated using robotic systems. Furthertests will be taken to make sure the phones camera are as they should be.Computer software has been used to automate these work activities, althoughtesting will become complicated when there are faults with the products. Repairstaff will fix these faults and get the phones back on the system to continuethe process.
(Segan, 2014)The final subsystem is thepackaging process. Products are put into boxes alongside their instructionmanual and cables. Automation is also used at this stage with the robotic trucksystem that will come along to pick up the boxes.
The robots accelerate theprocess by scanning the barcodes of the products. This data is stored into themanufacturing system to calculate the number of phones that have been producedto separate and individualise them. The boxes are transported to the shippingfloor and the output has been created. (Segan, 2014).Thediagram below uses systems thinking to show the systems that exist in SE.
Eachsystem has interrelations and interlinks. Manufacturing Purchasing Human Resource Management Research & Development Marketing Accounting & Finance Samsung Electronics Input Output Feedback Systems are goal seeking and areaiming to create the output. Inputs can be things like raw materials, researchor capital. The output is the product created. Outside of the boundaries arecustomers and they can impact a business.
Samsung has an open system, whichmeans it interacts with outside influences. For example, if customers arechoosing to buy phones from competitors like Apple and Sony. Samsung would haveto find a way to attract their customers back and this is the systems immediateenvironment. The departments may try to resolve this by introducing a newproduct or by improving existing products. Department How the systems interlink with the manufacturing department Purchasing The purchasing department will be given things like a stock order from the manufacturing department.
The purchasing department will ensure that these items are purchased, so the manufacturing department has the necessary materials to carry out their work in the system. Accounting & Finance This determines the amount of money the manufacturing department will receive. E.g. To buy new equipment for the creation of products.
Human Resource Management They recruit and train people to work in the departments. The manufacturing system may need a specialist worker and they may require new workers to help them on a build. They will request this from the HRM department. The HRM will also be responsible of handing out wages to the workers. Marketing Marketing tell the manufacturing system about products they should focus on assembling.
This will be done to increase sales and profits. The Marketing system will tell them when to stop producing a product. E.
g. when the sale cycle for it is over. Research & Development They develop new ideas for how manufacturing can be done. For example, to produce goods quicker and improve quality. They may inform the manufacturing system of new products they have tested and prototypes that need to be considered.
Feedback refers to the changes thatneed to be made to the output, so that next time it meets the system’s goalsbetter and the outcome is improved. There is negative and positive feedback. Ifthe phones receive negative feedback, the process will start again as an inputand the system will try to improve the phones based on the feedback.
Whenfeedback is positive, the output will still be fed back to the system, but thistime for further growth and improvement (Breen & Hussain, 2012).Task2Mobile computing devices havedeveloped increasingly over the years and organisations have chosen to takeadvantage of this by implementing them into their workplace. Today workers andbusinesses can use technological devices to access the internet to bring manybenefits to their organisation. Manufacturers could use a tabletlike an Apple iPad (portable PC), it has over 1 million apps and it could beused by the Samsung workers to improve the automation carried out in theassembly work. For example, workers could easily control the automated systemsused in manufacturing without having to disrupt the machine from carrying outits work. Changes to the automated systems can be done instantly using the iPadand workflow isn’t interrupted. iPads are WiFi compatible and can be configuredto work with the automated systems.
Workers can complete tasks efficiently asthey don’t have to make changes to the system by stopping the machines. Thisimproves the manufacturers work, because they’re programming the roboticsystems beforehand and if changes need to be made to the data, workers willinterrupt the process and reset the systems. The 8MP and FaceTime HD camerascan be used to video call other subsystems over the internet and this is moreefficient then meeting up.The Fitbit Ionic smartwatch deviceconnects to WiFi.
It can be used to meet deadlines and manage time effectively.The watch is enabled with a call, text and calendar function. Information andnotes can be stored on the device. This can be accessed at any time, withworkers just having to look at their wrists. This improves the current workprocesses as communication is flowing.
Workers don’t have to meet physicallylike they already are. Workers can multitask by calling other workers, whilecarrying out their work. Workers in the assembly process will be able tocontact workers in the packaging process, informing them on when the productsare created. This improves productivity for the business and less time isconsumed. NFC is also included, which is used to scan NFC tagged products;product information is accessible through the watch. The GPS will ensureworkers know where they need to be and where to navigate to. Samsung manufacturing calculate theamount of stock used and left each day. This information is stored on computersused in the current work processes.
The problem that arises from this is thatmaterial can be miscalculated, because a lot of it goes to waste and ends upmissing. The usage of an MC3200 mobile computer would improve the current workprocesses at Samsung manufacturing because this device is used to monitor andcontrol stock. The device had a 1D laser scanner that instantly scan barcodesand log them into the stock data.
The device can also be used to automateorders for more stock and this information can be passed to the purchasingdepartment via WiFi. This saves a lot of time and is more efficient thanmanually logging this information. Information and operating systemsare key to businesses and will remain important for the foreseeable future.
Thesystems thinking concepts and general systems theory was applied to my chosenorganisation. This showed the key work processes carried out in my proposedarea of work. Systems thinking allowed me to look at Samsung Electronics as asystem and I was able to open the organisation up to see what existed inside.This helped me talk about the interlinks and work processes carried out bydifferent subsystems and departments. After completing task 1, I figured outhow work processes carried out in manufacturing at Samsung could be improved bythe usage of mobile devices that can connect to the internet.
These deviceswould be used to improve productivity and efficiency for Samsung Electronics.References – Management Information Systems, twelfthedition, Prentice-Hall, 2012. – Power, D. (n.d.).
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Buy Fitbit Ionic Smartwatch – Blue & Orange atArgos.co.uk – Your Online Shop for Smart watches, Mobile phones andaccessories, Technology.. online Argos.
Available at: http://www.argos.co.uk/product/7458239