India tourist map. But the disappearance of flora and

India is the seventh largest country in the Worldwhich covers about 1/3rd of the northern hemisphere and 1/6thof the eastern hemisphere. It consists of 30 states and 07 union territoriesamong which Odisha is one. Odisha is situated on the eastern coast of Indiaalong the Bay of Bengal covering nature’s boundary of 482 km stretch ofcoastline with wide beaches, beautiful casuarina forest and river estuaries inits eastern side. Among its 30 districts 6 districts cover the coastal areas.Puri is one among these 6 coastal districts.

Our study area is the PuriMunicipal Area in the District Head Quarters of this district. This city is famousfor its golden beach and the sea water here is ideal for swimming and surfing.Fine white sand, roar of the breakers rolling in from the Bay of Bengal andcountless devotees flocking the place for a purification dip are synonymouswith the Puri beach.

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The beach has continued to be a sacred venue for anendless number of pilgrims coming to pay homage to Lord Jagannath. Apart frombeing a beach resort, the region also boasts of a number of historicalmonuments, temples, natural springs and varied flora and fauna. Because of itsscencic splendor the municipality has accorded it a place in the internationaltourist map.

But the disappearance of flora and fauna due to deforestation,soil degradation and dumping of land-derived wastes in sea water have beencausing widespread pollution that also affects the development potentials ofthe Puri Urban Region. That is why, it is a matter of utmost regional concernand it needs proper study, assessment, analysis and multi-dimensional focus ofattention. HISTORICALBACKGROUNDPuri one of thecoastal districts of Odisha, is famous for its historic antiquities andreligious sanctuaries. It has a strong historical background beginning from 3rdcentury B.C till date. This district has been named after its Head QuartersPuri. The ancient name of this city was “Charitra” as mentioned by the ChinesePiligrim Hiauen Tsang as Che-li-ta-lo.

The importance of this town improvedwhen the temple of Lord Jagannath was constructed. Then this city became famousas “PurusottamKshetra”. During Mughal Period this city became well known as “Chattar”.This place is also known as “Purusottampoori”. Evidence found from many earlyrecords of Britishers confirm that this town was known by the name “Pooree”.

Afterindependence this place is well known as “Puri”. In this way the city has gotits name.According to thehistorical records, the early settlement at Puri started with fishermen(Dhibars along the sea) and hunter-gatherers (Sabars) in the forests, latersettling in scattered agricultural villages. The town owes its birth andexistence to the temple of Lord Jagannath. The temple was constructed initiallyby King Indradyumna. During the 10th century, king YayatiKesari (Yayati II ofSomavamsi dynasty) built the second temple on the same spot, as the firsttemple by Indradyumna was dilapidated. King Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva(1174-1198 AD) of Ganga dynasty built the third or the present temple. He beganthe construction of the present temple sometime after 1135 AD.

The temple wascompleted by his descendant and grandson Anangabhima Deva III. In the 9thcentury AD, a major change occurred in Puri, as Acharya Shankar visited theholy place and upgraded it to one of the four ‘Dhamas’.PHYSICAL BACKGROUNDa.              Regional Settingi.                Geographical LocationPuri is locatedat 190 47′ 55″ N and 850 49’55” E along the eastern coast of India, on the shores of the Bay ofBengal. The town is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the South byMauza Sipasarubali; on the west by Mauza Gopinathpur; and on the north by MauzaBalukhanda.

 Base map Puri town is connectedby broad gauze railway line with Khurda Road, an important railway junction onthe South East Railways connecting Howrah and Chennai. It is about 499 kms fromKolkata and 468 kms, from Waltair. N.H.

203 connects Puri with the capital cityBhubaneswar. The Marine drive of 35 kms connects it with Konark, another famoustourist attraction. Puri town forms a part of the littoral tract of Odishacoastal plains.

The general slope is from north-west to south-east. The builtup habitat is linear in character. LocationalMap ii.              MorphologyThe urban region is characterizedby featureless and flat alluvial plain and forms a part of the Mahanadi delta.The general slope is from north-west to south-east intersected by localundulations largely in the form of sand-dunes.

Some rivers have failed to givedeltaic characteristics because of strong currents. Some part of Puri town, in sofar as built up habitat is concerned, is linear in character and is subjectedto inundation by river Bhargabi.Generally in coastalplains of Odisha three parallel belts can be distinguished. They are:(a) The salt tract(b) The plain arabletract(c) The sub-montanetractThe salt tract isnarrow and stretches just beyond the shoreline for 5 to 6 kms.

inland, where itmeets the sand dunes. The arable tract is a vast stretch of plains behind thesalt tract where monotony of the physiographic division is a special feature.The endless stretch of paddy lands is its typical characteristics.

Thesub-montane tract is the meeting zone of the dead level flat alluvial plains ofthe delta and the escarpments of the Eastern Ghats. It can be termed as a zoneof transition. Puri City is located within the Salt track of this vast region.iii.            Geomorphological CharacteristicsOdisha is a part of theGondwana landmass, one of the oldest and most stable land masses in the world.

The rock type found in this area is made up of Oilgocene, lower Miocene,Pleistocene and Recent deposits. Recent rocks are the sedimentary rocks builtby the alluvial deposits of the east-flowing rivers and also by the marinedeposits of the Bay of Bengal. These are the youngest rocks and they providerich agricultural land. They emerged comparatively recently and bear the tracesof massive erosion.Raised beaches andsandstones are some of its prominent features. Underlying rocks in this areaconsist of some form of metamorphic gneisses, while the overlying rocks consistof laterites, older alluvium and recent riverine deltaic deposits.iv.

             SlopeThis said zone lyingbetween 0.1000 meters from the High Tide Line (HTL) is the most eco-sensitivezone in terms of environmental conversation and management because of itsphysiographic and landscape characteristics. It is extremely important to checkfurther denundation of forest coverage not only for preservation of coastalecosystem but also to enhance the aesthetic beauty of the coast.v.               Shoreline CharacteristicsVery limited data isavailable based on only visual observation carried by various commercial shipsas reported by the Indian Meteorological Department. The average tidal range ofthe coast is 2 meters. Near the shore surface currents seem to be parallel tocoastline.

Heavy storms and cyclonic currents generally contribute to thedevelopment of high rate of sedimentation in the area. The physiography andmajor geomorphological features of this region are its various beaches. Theyare as follows:(a)       Beach at Baliapanda, Puri: Thebeach is rather wide and the foreshore has a gradual slope. Sand dunes on theback shore are not as high as in Balighai. Casuarina is the main plantation ofthis beach. The beach sand indicates relatively high wave activity. Accordingto the observations of National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, the Sea hasreceded by about 45 to 65 meters (150 to 200 feet) in the vicinity of Puri townover a period of 85 years i.e.

from 1889 to 1974.(b)       Beach at Digabareni Khunti: MainBeach is the major attraction of Puri for the tourists. It extends fromDigabareni to Swargadwar (approximately 3 Kilometers). Like Baliapanda Beach,the Main Beach is wide and has a gradual slope. Sand dunes are not foundfrequently.

There is no casuarina forest found here. The beaches of the regionare quite extensive and generally very impressive with regard to scenic beauty,sand composition, topographic characteristics, and surf. The extent of beachareas offer a considerable variety in physical setting and environment.The sand of the beachis somewhat white, golden and fine. The beach typically slopes gently into theocean providing safe access to the water. Local fishing activities causeconsiderable stinking smell because of the fishes left over on the beach.

The generaltemperature of water is ideal for bathing and swimming. Surf conditions aregenerally attractive for board surfing. The water is also conducive for thedevelopment of water sports like sailing, canoeing, fishing, shelling and waterskiing except during the monsoon season.(c)       Beach At Penthakanta:  Itcan be said that sea beaches in all these places are noted not to have beensubjected to severe erosion. Due to the receding of Sea, there has beenconsiderable increase in the width of the Beach. But the fishery group ofpeople occupied this beach for living purpose un-authentically for more than             DrainageThere is no riverwithin the Puri town.

River Musa is a small river that goes along the northernboundary of the town, which has gone through the Atharnala into the town. Nowthis part of the river is dried-up and extinct. Only dried channel can be seenthrough the city which was crossing the Badadanda (Grand Road) to fall into thesea at Bankimuhana. Now the Bankimuhana portion of the river has been convertedinto a drain.vii.           SoilThe soil of Puri istransported soil on the basis of its mode of formation. There are mainly twotypes of soil found in the town namely sandy soil and alluvial soil. Alluvialsoil is mostly found in northern and north-eastern parts of the town.

Butremaining part is dominated by sandy soil which is favorable for cashew and casuarinaforest. PH values are high in the south of Puri. Textually there are mainly 4types of soil namely:1.              Balia (Sandy Soil)2.              NunaMati (Saline Soil)3.              BaliaMatala (Rich Sandy Loam)4.              Dorasa (Admixture of equal proportion ofclay and sand)viii.

         Land Use In this map it is foundthat most of the land is used in built up lands covering residence, governmentand private offices, hotels, roads, religious places and slums. Some part ofthe city is covered by some vegetation mainly of casuarina forest. This hasbeen shown in the land-use map of Puri. b.     Climate of The CityThe city enjoys anequable climatic condition round the year. The cold season is from December toFebruary followed by the hot season from March to May. The period from June toSeptember is the monsoon season while October to November constitutes the postmonsoon transit period. Although the normal climatic condition of the town iswarm tropics type, the presence of sea makes a lot of difference.

It maintainsa moderate temperature condition and the soothing cool breeze throughout theyear makes the weather pleasant.i.                Temperature The average temperature of the area is around 250cduring April and May. Average minimum temperature is 220c whichdrops to even 150c in December. But in the recent years temperaturevaries drastically. Month-wise distribution of temperature is placed in tablenumber 3.1.

It is found from the table that temperature the range oftemperature in 2016 was 22.50 C to 34.00 C and in 2017 isfound in between  22.50 C to33.00 C.          ii.              RainfallThe average annualrainfall in the zone is between 130-140 c.m.

More than ¾ of the rainfall isreceived during the monsoon season. Months like April and May are marked bysudden storms in the afternoon known as Nor’easters.  The period like May andOctober-November experience cyclonic storms. Table 3.2 gives the month-wiseactual rainfall in Puri (in c.

m). It is found from the table that the averageannual rainfall in recent years found decreasing than the usual annual rainfall.  iii.

            HumidityRelative Humidity ishigh throughout the year in the coastal areas. It ranges from 80% of relative humidityin December to 87% in July. During cyclones or depression periods it reachesthe saturation point.iv.              Wind Winds are fairly strongin coastal regions in the summer and monsoon months. The winds generallyapproach the shore from south and south westerly direction from June toSeptember. The wind speeds is less in post monsoon months and in the coldseason. The average speed varies from 50 to 100 kms / hr.

v.               Special Weather PhenomenaSome special weatherphenomena like cyclonic storms and depressions originating in the Bay of Bengaleach year in post monsoon months pass through this district and its neighboringdistricts. Such cyclones and depressions cause heavy rain and violent wind flowin this place. Violent thunder storms occur in this place during these cyclonicperiods.

c.     Floraand Fauna of the CityThe coastal stretch isvery rich in vegetation coverage. Sal (Shorea Robusta) constitutes theprincipal species. Besides, what is generally found with it is Asan (TerminaliaTomentosa),Bahara ( TerminaliaBelerica), Harida (TerminaliaChebula), Mahula(Madhucaindica), Jamun (Eugenia Jamboana), Kendu (Diosphyrosmeloxylon), Piasal(Ptrea carpus marsupium), Kasi (Bride liaretusa), Sidha(HargestroemiaParvflora), Sishoo (Dalhergialatifolia), Bandhan (Ongelinia Dalbergiodes),Kunbhi (CareyaArborea),  Kurum (AdinaCordifolia), Mundi (Mitragyndparviflora), Kusum (ScheicheraTrijuga), and Sunari(Cassia Fistula). The common shrubs are: rani dantakata(Flemingiachappar),girala (Indigoferapullchella), Tor chtree (IxoraParviflora),Kaucina (Diospyroussylvtica), Arkaula (MilletiaAutoculate), Siali (Bauhiniavahli), Murdha (ButeaPaveriflora), and Atundi (CombreturDecandrum) are the commonclimbers in the forest. The chief timber trees are: Sal (Shorea Robusta),Piasal (PterocorpusMarsupium), Kurum (Adina Cordifolia), Sisso(Dalbergialatifilia), Bandhan (Eugenia Dalbergiodes) and Asan(TerminaliaTomentosa). The minor products of local importance are Harida,Bhada, Amla, Kamalogundi, Sanaribark, Kochila, Broom Grass and Kendu Leaves.

The fauna found in thatarea includes carnivores like Wild Cat, Fox, Bear, Hyena, Wild Dog and Jackals.Other animals like Black Buck are common on the sea coast while Chital orSpotted Deer are generally found in open jungle. The Game Birds of the areaincludes Pea Fowl, Gray Partridge, Rain Botton, Bustard, and Bush Quail. Amongthe fish patch, mugils are found in common besides prawn and crabs.

2.THE SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE CITYa.    CasteTheEnglish word “caste” derives from the Latin word “Castus” whichmeans chaste, clean or pure.

Its Spanish and Portuguese derivative is “casta”, which means, “race, lineage, or breed”according to Oford English Dictionary. In India first the Social Castestructure was based on “Varna”. Butlater caste is mainly divided on the basis of occupation structure in ahierarchical order. The caste system is a socio-cultural aspect of thePuri town and it is akin to other areas of the state. There are 09 majorcastes. They are Chasa, Brahmin, Bauri, Gauda, Sudra, Teli, Kewta, Gudia, Karanand Khandayat (including of course the Kshatriya). Again each caste has furthersubdivisions and groups.

The above caste system was initially derived on thebasis of types of occupation during ancient times. Marriages also take placewithin the members of each sub-group. Inter-caste marriages are not allowed.The “Daitas” marry within their community.b.    Infrastructureof the CityThe area of Purimunicipality is about 16.32 sq. kms.

and it stretches along the sea shoremeasuring 6.59 kms. The following physical and social infrastructure isavailable in the area.

c.     TransportTransport plays animportant role in the promotion of tourism. Puri is connected by both roadwayand railway networks. It is well connected with Bhubaneswar by NH-203. Othertowns are also connected with Puri. Puri has also direct railway connectionwith important towns of the country like Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Chennai,Hyderabad and other towns are connected with Khurda Road and Bhubaneswarstation.

d.    WaterSupplyLike other resorttowns, Puri largely depends upon underground sources of water. A large openarea near Sanskrit University provides the required underground water for Puritown.

In Puri town there are 03 overhead tanks at MarkandeswarSahi (2.2gallons), Ghoda Bazar (1 lakh gallons), and TotaGopinath (1 lakh gallons). Inaddition to these, there is also one underground reservoir (2 lakh gallon). Thehotels and guest houses have their own water supply system by use of pumps fordrawing ground water.e.    SewerageSystemPhysiographically theentire city comes under a very gentle slope area which is less that 4 mts.

TheSewerage system in Puri city is very poor due to its gentle slope.All majorroads are dug for open drains. Waste water from major hotels are drained intothe sea by open drains along the beach flouting all aesthetic norms whichcreates a very unhygienic environment. In rainy season the environmentalcondition is worst. f.

     HealthFacilitiesThe World HealthOrganization (WHO) defined health as “a state of complete physical, moral andsocial well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity”. Inthese terms health is not just a medical matter to be left to the care of thephysicians. It is a social goal in the attainment of which community andpersonal behaviors are equally important.

In Puri city there is a good facilityof health care. There are 1 District Govt. Hospital, 1 Kamala Maternity Home, 1Leprosy Hospital, 1 Ayurvedic college hospital and a number of private nourishinghomes and homeopathic Homes. Many poor people avail health care facilities fromthese centers and can avail different treatment as per their need. Source: Puri MunicipalityAnalysis of the abovetable gives an idea about the availability of medical facilities in Puri. Thereare 05 private nursing homes and a number of clinics also. 3.DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE CITYa.

    PopulationPuri, being a uni-functionalreligious town like other religious towns of India, experienced a very slowgrowth. The population of the town reached one lakh in 1981 after a span of 80years. The town experienced a negative growth from 1901 to 1931 and reached apopulation size of almost same as of 1901 in 1951 and only after 1961 thepopulation increased mainly because of improvement in infrastructuralfacilities with efforts of taking it up as an important tourist center. As per1991 census report, the population of Puri city was 1,24,835 whereas as per2001 census report of India, it had a population of 155,776 with the growthrate of 23.

6 per cent. During 1971-1981 the growth rate was 38.3per cent,whereas it decreased to 27.11per cent in 2011 census. A significant aspect in the town’s demographicpeculiarity is that its population seasonally increases manifold during thefestivals especially on the occasion of the car festival and during the piousIndian month of Kartika.

          Sources:Statistical Abstract of Puri, 1997, Department of Economics and Statistics. b.    SexRatioSex ratio is the basictool for the analysis of the composition of population. It forms a major part thatdirectly influences the married persons in a population and the birth rate. Italso determines the socio-economic and political structure of the population.This is calculated as the number of females per 1000 males. The sex ratio ofPuri town is 1000:975 or 100:97. From the table -5 we can easily mark out thesex rate variation and its decadal growth beginning from 1901-2001.

In the above table, itis found that in 1901 the sex ratio was 902 which declined in 1911 to 733 whichspeaks about a very poor sex ratio. To adjust this ratio to its previousposition it takes around 9 decades and it reaches to 917 in 2001 and increasedto 926 in 2011. Still the ratio is not a healthy one.c.     LiteracyThe term literacy isone of the very significant qualitative indicators of social developmentassociated with the economic development.

It is the most vital instrument forchanging the socio-economic status of an individual and the society as a whole.Education is considered as a revolution for bringing a new world and adeveloped social system. d.

    OccupationThe study of Economicactivities of people or labour force occupies an important position in thefield of population geography. The economic and social development of a nationdepends on the number of persons who are economically active, the quality oftheir work and the regularity of their employment. The work force is dividedinto different groups according to their working industries.

This occupationalstructure is mainly categorized by the census of India.