In Roman mythology, Saturn is the god of agriculture, or Cronus in Greek. Saturday is named after Saturn. In 1610, Galileo Galilei was the first to observe it with a telescope, and found its shape odd. Since Saturn’s rings plane changes, the view from Earth seemed to change. Later in 1659, Christiaan Huygens figured out how the geometry of the rings changes, and why it look different sometimes than others. Saturn seemed to be the only planet with rings until 1977, where they found Uranus had faint rings, then in 1979 they found Jupiter had faint rings, then later neptune. In 1979, NASA’s Pioneer 11 first visited Saturn, then Voyager 1 and 2 visited it. NASA’s Cassini arrived on July 1, 2004, and orbited it for four years, and then dove into Titan. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system, behind Jupiter. It has 61 moons and its biggest moon is Titan, which is bigger than Mercury and Pluto. It Earth was put into saturn, 760 Earths would fit. It is the farthest planet away, that you can see with the naked eye. You can tell it apart from stars because it doesn’t “twinkle” like stars do. It is about 888 million miles from the sun. It’s radius is 36,184 miles, diameter is 72,368 miles across. A day on Saturn is 10 hours and 42 minutes, and it takes it 29.4 earth years to completely orbit the sun, or 10,755 earth days. It orbits at a speed of 21636 miles per hour. Saturn is made mostly of Hydrogen and Helium, the atmosphere bleeds into the ground though, it is rumored there is no solid ground for a spacecraft to land on, because its surface is mostly liquid metallic hydrogen, with slight traces of ices. Compared to Saturn, Earth’s magnetic field is 578 times weaker. The pressure on Saturn gets stronger and stronger the farther you go towards the center. If a spacecraft tried to land, it would most likely be crushed by the pressure of its gravity before it could even reach the ground. In saturn, the pressure is so great, hydrogen is a liquid. It is much less dense than any other planet in the solar system, and if it was put in a huge pool of water, it would float. Saturn’s average temperature is really low because of its distance from the sun, and stays around -270 degrees fahrenheit. The lower you got to its core, its gets up to 21,000 degrees fahrenheit. Saturn has two main rings that can be seen from earth, A and B, with a faint ring C. The rings are actually made up of lots and lots of small particles from 1cm to 10m in size and possibly kilometer sized objects are possible too, each in their own individual orbit. The rings width is about 250,000 km thick, but are less than 1 km thick. Some particles are rocks covered with ice, but most of them are water ice. There isn’t very much material in the rings, and if its rings were compressed, it would only be 100 km across. Saturn has super fast winds in the upper atmosphere, and heat coming from inside, causes it to have gold and yellow bands in its atmosphere. It spins faster than any other planet, except for Jupiter, which makes it flatten on its poles, and bulge on its equator, making it not a perfect sphere. Saturn has a weird hexagon on its north pole, that is 20,0O0 miles wide, which could fit almost 4 Earth’s in it. It was first discovered in 1988, by scientists reviewing the footage from the 1980 and 1981 Voyager run past Saturn. It wasn’t confirmed until years later when NASA sent their Cassini and observed it up close. In the center of the hexagon, it has a raging storm, and a thermal scan shows it goes 60 miles into its atmosphere. Scientists aren’t sure what causes the odd shape but have some ideas.They think what causes the shape is jet streams down at cloud level, spinning and keeping the shape together. They noticed that the corners of the hexagon spin around its center, the same speed that planet spins on its axis.