In through TQM programs, less than half of the

In order to improve the organization’s overall
business process which includes the quality of products and services, a
methodical approach called Total Quality Management is used(H.C. Lau, M.A.
Idris, 2001. This integrated program is used to gain competitive advantages
through continuous improvement in every aspect of organizational culture. Hence
 TCQ is an integrated management philosophy which emphasizes :

 teamwork  and employee

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continuous improvisation

meeting customers’ needs

team-based problem-solving

 continuous analysis of results

a closer connection with suppliers,
and so on (Oke, M. A., & Oke, O. D., 2014). 

Implementing the programs like total quality management has become an effective
strategy in order to improve the quality of goods and services (Tata, J., &
Prasad, S., 1998).




Among the organizations were total quality management (TQM) practices
were adopted and systematically executed with sufficient top management
control, the corresponding competitive advantages achieved is high (Thomas J.
Douglas and William Q.
Judge Jr., 2001). Yet many organizations fail to execute the program

the researchers based on the surveys, the major concern was to find what makes
the TQM work. The failures in TQM initiatives due to lack of information and data on the critical success factors etc, made the researchers examine the problems associated with its
implementation. They suggest that through TQM
programs, less
than half of the organizations have observed significant improvement. This can
result even in the collapse of the previous system that existed before the
implementing the Total Quality Management program(H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, 2001).
Hence they fail to bring sustained changes in the organization. They become a
trend which will soon be replaced by another trend. The gap between the top
management’s expressions on their targets for TQM and the reality in the
execution of this in different subunits of the organization resulted in failure
to institutionalize TQM. As the quality of management varies in various
subunits, this gap also varies. Quality of management means the ability of top
sections of the institution to

(1)   develop a dedication to the new TQM course and

(2)    take actions and make decisions that are stable with it

(3)   develop leadership skills and team bond necessary for QM implementation,

(4)   create a space for open conversations about the progress in TQM
transformation which will help to learn and make further changes (Michael Beer,


The researchers indicate that the major barriers to implementing TQM are

·         inadequate human capital development and coordination

·         insufficient quality planning

·         lack of leadership and resources for TQM

·         lack of focus and direction on customer

(Sebastianelli, R., & Tamimi, N., 2003 & Bhat, K. S., &
Rajashekhar, J., 2009).  


If these barriers are properly analyzed and understood, then it is
possible to form a

structure to assess the relative significance of management-related
barriers to the success of  TQM and to guide in developing policies for a
production quality transformation.

The prime objective of TQM programs is to improvise the Business
performance by

·         supply quality management,

·         employee participation, recognition and reward

·          quality system management

 Oke, M. A., & Oke, O. D. (2014) suggested that management should try
to upgrade themselves to the different TQM practices in order to face the competitive