In of Species, he argues that variation is vital

In Charles Darwin’s excerpt,
Natural Selection from The Origin of
Species, he argues that variation is vital for species to thrive and
reproduce and is the basis of natural selection. Darwin brings
upon two main ideas that explains his argument regarding variation, that is
natural selection and the struggle for existence. He explains how
this struggle to exist is the reason why some traits of certain species thrive
and others do not. Darwin uses an example such as, two canine
animals at a time of food shortage that fight with each other to acquire food
and live (Darwin, 1956, p.132). Based upon Malthus’
doctrines, Darwin explains that regardless of the number of species increasing
rapidly the world cannot possibly hold the weight of all the species due to
nature’s limitations. It is important that animals compete with one
another to determine which among them is the fittest. There are
advantages through the struggle of existence as some species have certain
abilities that other species may not have, hence these variations allow them to
survive. Darwin goes onto explain how the struggle for
existence involves an organism to survive and not only that, but to reproduce
more offspring so that those traits can be carried on throughout time. This principle is
what he brought out as Natural Selection, the ability of an organism to survive
and reproduce through changing conditions. The survival of progeny
is extremely important as these individuals will carry the traits that are most
advantageous for many generations to come. Whether an
organism survives through competition or simply cooperation, the struggle for
existence between organisms are dependent on one another. Darwin provides
examples explaining how in certain parts of the world cattle determines the
existence of a specific evergreen tree known as Scotch fir, whereas in other
parts insects determine the existence of cattle (Darwin, 1956, p. 138).

Furthermore,
Darwin explains sexual selection in addition to natural selection as
reproduction is the key to survival. Different males possess
different traits that allow them to attract females to mate and reproduce more
offspring. The reproduction of offspring is what allows for
traits to be selected and would be carried on into further generations.

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Environment
is also an essential factor in the survival of species. Darwin notes that
when a species is isolated in a specific environment, the variations allow that
species to survive among those who are unable to. Darwin outlines
the concept of descent with modification, as certain traits are chosen over
others, small differences between the same species gradually increase causing a
divergence among them (Darwin, 1956, p.156). The contemporary
relevance of Darwin’s ‘Natural Selection’ is its relation to society.

When
Darwin explains the movement of species from one region to another he uses the
word “immigrants (Darwin, 1956, p.144)”. This comparison is
indirectly leading to the point that the increase in population or immigrants
has caused many changes in society. In terms of sexual
selection, Darwin mentions that only males have the ability to attract females
and pass on their advantageous traits to their offspring not vice versa. Having mentioned
this, it is evident that even at that time sexism and inequality existed.

Sexism
and gender inequality are one of the most rising issues in society today.