In the early 1950’s, racism and segregation of black and white people in public facilities were key problems in American society.
Minorities, especially African-Americans, were highly discriminated by a radical amount of the white race. The vigorous treatment towards a high percentage of African-American citizens was the cause of activists and citizens cooperating together to revoke against segregation and protesting civil rights for all minorities. These actions from civil-rights activists would result in police brutality, conviction, and discriminatory against whoever was in support of desegregation and anti-racism. During the 1950’s, African American parents challenged the segregation of white and black children in Public schools. This practice was challenged in the case Brown vs. Board Of Education after receiving multiple cases about the practice beforehand.
In the case, segregation in public schools was looked at as a violation of the 14th amendment which guarantees “equal protection of the laws”. Citizens in support of segregation in public schools were intrigued in claiming that the practice of segregation is allowable because of the supreme court’s precedent “separate but equal”. Chief Justice Fred M.
Vinson held his official opinion that the Plessy verdict should stand. September 1953, before Brown v. Board of Education was to be heard, Vinson died, so President Dwight D. Eisenhower had him replaced with Earl Warren, governor of California. May 17, 1954, In the decision “In the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal” was written by Warren. The plaintiffs were”deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment” as a result toward what the court had ruled. In support of Desegregation in public schools, the Supreme Court’s decision of ruling that all Public Schools were to be desegregated was the right decision because of the struggle for African-American parents and children and also was a step into the process of the civil-rights movement. Early 1950’s most schools in the south including 17 district public schools were segregated since franticly all public facilities were.
Most of the white community in southern and also numerous urban areas supported segregation in public schools and believed it was apart of the Supreme Court’s ruling on being “separate but equal.” Being segregated publicly accomplishes being “separate” but the struggle and negativity of understanding and following the “equal” part of the Supreme Court’s ruling placed a dehumanizing effect on minorities, especially African Americans. Students that were African-American are deprived of education because they’re considered inferior to white students so segregation was able to be allowed in education particularly for that one reason;which created conflict and a need for change, challenging desegregation in Education. “Segregating children in public education created and perpetuated the idea that African American children held a lower status in the community than white children, even if their separate educational facilities were substantially equal in “tangible” factors. This feeling of inferiority reduced the desire to learn and achieve in African American children, and had “a tendency to retard their educational and mental development and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racially integrated school system.”(Duignan) The white community considers that this form of education is safe because keeping different races like black and whites seperated was to resent conflict and keep students be focused and on task. Being separated was causing more conflict for various reasons toward civil rights being taken away from african americans and we’rent being granted the same guarantees in education as the white students.
The options that were given to African Americans were schools that were already over crowded. African American children were more exposed to low income, crime, and education is all their parents wanted for them and that was being taken away by the government; education should not be prior to segregation and discrimination against African culture. No plans that schools in the south were following along with to combine multi-race schools. The White community was not comfortable to be exposed to African-American students which was demeaning toward children that want to learn. The education system was similar but if an african american child lived closer to a school for all-whites than all-blacks they still could not attend. Until parents finally stood up to the problem with the desegregation in the education.
” In the early 1950s, several black parents challenged this practice in the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education.”(Shelley) In this case the Browns were not allowed to send their child to the closest school to their home because it was an all-white school. “There was a school closer to the Brown’s house, but it was only for white students. Linda Brown and her family believed that the segregated school system violated the Fourteenth Amendment and took their case to court.” Browns placed an appeal on their case that didn’t end in the their favor.
So they brought the case to the supreme court. “Such practices violate the Fourteenth Amendment, which requires all Americans to be treated equally under the law. Furthermore, segregated schools harm black children by teaching them that they are inferior.” Black children are being perceived as “inferior” in other words, A danger to white students. Four class action suits were filed in four states by the (NAACP) “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People”.
They were on behalf of African-American students being denied by admission to attend all-white schools. The Supreme court denied numerous amounts of cases having to do with segregation before Brown vs Board of Education. If the education system was desegregated then other public facilities would be desegregated which created a substantial amount of fear for the white population, especially down South.
“The case was fought through the legal arm of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) which had been fighting civil rights battles since the 1930s.” The NAACP had been dealing with civil rights for many years and the fact that education plays a role in segregation is horrific especially because it creates a struggle to develop opportunities for the future and will cause the unemployed rate to increase. America saw education as the path to future for children to find their professions and to boost the economy so education was looked at to be equal amongst everyone no matter what. “The Supreme Court upheld the principle of segregation and “separate but equal,” with its ruling in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. This decision essentially legalized discrimination and made African Americans second-class citizens.
“(Rogers) Discrimination against African Americans when the supreme court ruled segregation in education were violent and verbal assault towards students in all-white schools. African-American Students would be harassed in bathrooms,classrooms,cafeteria etc. These encounters were all taken place after “Brown” won the case for the NAACP due to segregation in education violating the 14th Amendment.
“In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Brown. The Court found the practice of segregation unconstitutional and refused to apply its decision in Plessy v. Ferguson to “the field of public education.” Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the opinion for the Court.” Federal courts decide even though segregation was legal, that the segregation in public schools was harmful to black children even though the school buildings were the same, transportation,and had teachers. “In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” The case didn’t end segregation it started a numerous amount of nascent political movements in the upcoming years for civil rights especially desegregation.