In and are not recognised as a legitimate part

In this text, Mark Frezzo (2014) examines human
rights through a sociological perspective, to delineate the social, cultural and
political circumstances by which human rights norms and laws are interpreted and
implemented. In this text
Frezzo considers how human right can either serve to “empower” (pp. 38) certain
individuals and communities within society depending on their social context,
for example, the geographical space which they occupy and the time in history
they lived. One strength about this reading is that it
doesn’t limit the discourse of extensive debates such as globalism and how that
effects rights to current contexts, instead he gives a broader outlook of historical
background as well as contemporary explanations of political,
social and economic, circumstances under which human rights norms and laws are achieved.
Further, the author puts forward the argument that sociology gives us a new perspective
on the way we analyse the roots of human rights for example defines notions such as “rights
effects, rights claims, rights bundles, and rights conditions” in great detail
(pp. 4-5)

Through a feminist and socio-legal outlooks, Jill Marshall
(2016) examines how our identities are protected through human rights law, however,
she goes on to analyses how human right laws can sometimes include and exclude particular
people because of the way they choose to identity. A prime example of such
phenomena is the LGBT+ community, they are sometimes not given adequate rights
and are not recognised as a legitimate part of society in certain parts of the
world such as south Asia. This book starts off by tracing back the origins of
identity and demonstrates the change of “the right to personal identity” (pp.
8) within the human rights structure. Marshall. J (2016) then delves into
contemporary as well as historic attempts to illustrate what the essence of personal
identity is by drawing on concepts such as rationality to explain what it means
to be a human being. Further, this text analyses the possibility for universal
principles and culturally specific rights to contradict each other e.g.  Marshall argues that although we live in a post-modern
society where individuals “create their own identity” (pp. 143) people still
find themselves feeling restricted with how they choose to identity because there
is a general accord of what is considered to be acceptable in every society. With
the influence of feminist theory Marshall concludes by stating that “human rights
laws would be more potent if they were seen as a force to enable freedom and
respect amongst people” (pp. 468). 

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