In this assessment the topics that are going to be discussed include identifying and explaining two significant developments from the welfare state; describing and evaluating two priority frameworks related to health inequalities as well as two pieces of current legislation relating to health, wellbeing and safeguarding. I will discuss two current policy initiatives and two preventative health measures designed to promote health and manage risk; define and explain the role of early intervention in one area of practice; as well as explaining the purpose of the codes of practice and three of the duties and responsibilities related to safeguarding individuals. Finally I will identify and describe three signs of neglect harm and abuse that are related to vulnerability factors and describe and evaluate two example of risk enablement which promote individual rights.1.One significant development that came from the welfare state was Education (Scotland) Act 1945 which was an act that amended the law in Scotland relating to education.
This ensured free education in Scotland’s schools and educational facilities that are under the management of the educational authorities. It also made it the duty of the authorities to provide adequate and effective provision is made in all education areas e.g. primary, secondary and further education.
This act also enable parents to have more say in how their children are educated (legislation.gov.uk).
Another significant development from the welfare state was the introduction of The National Health Service (NHS) –NHS Scotland was officially instated in 1948 – this provided everyone in Scotland access to a family doctor as well as prescription medication and glasses etc. for free for the first time. General practices, pharmacies, opticians and dentists struggled with the influx of demand by people who could not previously afford healthcare services (ournhsscotland.com).2.One priority framework related to Health inequalities would be Better Health, Better Care; this aims to help Scottish citizens sustain and improve their health particularly in deprived areas and to ensure that there is better and faster access to local healthcare. This framework operates under the purpose of making Scotland Wealthier and Fairer by trying to allow people and businesses to increase their funds and that more people can have a share of these funds; it hopes to provide smarter opportunities for Scots by expanding the opportunities available for them to succeed from nurture and lifelong learning.
Thus ensuring higher and vaster achievements that are shared throughout Scotland. In the process of this framework Scotland’s citizens should become healthier due to this framework trying to make sure that better health care is being made available in local areas and that this can be accessed at a faster rate; as well as Scottish towns and cities becoming safer and stronger as the government hopes help local communities succeed to become stronger and safer for the citizen’s living in them. Doing this would ensure that Scotland’s economy and society continues to offer improved opportunities and the chance for a better quality of life. The guidelines in this framework also hope to help Scotland become more Eco-friendly and greener by improving both its natural and man-made environments and ensure efforts are being made to sustain the use and enjoyment of it (Scottish Government). Another priority framework related to health inequalities would be the Growing Up in Scotland which is a long term study that researches and tracks the lives of Scottish children and families from the early years and on. The main purpose of G.
U.S is to hopefully provide new and relevant information that will support policy making in Scotland; however this reports made from studies carried out by G.U.S can also be useful resources from practitioners and various other professionals or volunteers as well as the parents of Scotland’s children. This study is effective in the evaluation of Scottish policies, frameworks and services as well as any changes that may have been made. In the process of the research carried out in this study since 2005 it has emphasized various inequalities many children and families were facing that may have previously gone unnoticed; thus motivating politicians and professionals to consider changes and efforts that can be made to address these inequalities.
Some examples of the conclusions drawn from this ongoing study is as follows; an improved awareness of how important the impact of early experiences and circumstances have on children has been made such as putting child who is not ready for school to school. In addition the understanding that the way a child is parented or any difficult family circumstances experienced can have an impact on young children was also discovered; which then led to a further awareness by politicians and professionals of social inequalities (Growing Up In Scotland,2012).3.Two pieces of current legislation that relates to health, wellbeing and safeguarding are as follows; The Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014 and the Public Bodies (Joint Working)(Scotland)Act 2015. The Children and Young People (Scotland) Act promotes health, wellbeing and safeguarding as its aim is to increase the awareness of and strengthen Children’s rights; this is achieved by making sure these rights are being considered by Scottish Ministers. Some of the changes this act implemented was to increase the power of Scotland’s Commissioner for Children and Young People and to ensure all Schools under the government’s authority provide free school meals to children from primary 1 to primary 3. This was in the hopes of ensuring that children were receiving at least one nutritious meal a day that they may not get at home. This act also worked to give children and young people who are looked after or in care more help and support; in relation to this the act encouraged agencies to work together to create a Child’s plan (cypcs) The Public Bodies (joint working)(Scotland) Act is being seen as the most significant reform to the NHS for a generation as it works to ensure all local council authorities and the NHS work together to provide conjoined services.
This act came about due to evidence that care that was co-ordinated could have a positive impact on the quality of life the people with long term illness and older generations would have (Eleanor Bradford, 2015) This would be so that the effort put into place by each authority from social care services to health was concise and consistent and have to ability to handle the growing number of Scottish citizens that require such services (careinfoscotland).4. The Early Years Framework promotes health and manages risk by placing a great importance on the recognition of the right of all young people and children to high quality relationships, environment and services provided to them. This should all be offered under a holistic approach to ensure all their needs are met. This framework operates under the idea that children should be valued and provided for by their communities and the importance of the children having strong sensitive relationships with their parents and caregivers. It also promotes children’s right to a high quality of life and access to play which can be sourced from The UN Convention of the Rights of the Child. The Early Years Framework is one of the policies that the Scottish Government hope would address the health inequalities in Scotland (gov.
scot). Working conjoined the Early Years Framework is GIRFEC otherwise known as Getting it Right for Every Child. GIRFEC establishes a guidance for all services to follow that allows them to assess and meet the needs of each individual child; it aims for all services to give every child or young person the best start in life as possible. Many Scottish schools follow GIRFEC as it is a transformative guidance that sets out to ensure that every child is Safe, healthy, active, nurtured, achieving, respected, responsible and included – otherwise known as SHANARRI. In practice; I have witnessed the promotion of GIRFEC and what it stands for through posters around various establishments; currently I have witnessed a discussion about the SHANARRI wheel and what area of it a certain topic covers in assemblies e.
g. harvest assembly; what does harvest mean and what areas of the wheel could be covered from doing the assembly and learning about the harvest? The answers that the children provided were that being aware of where their food came from could help them make more healthy eating decisions and that by them participating in the creation and delivery of assembly they would be included in the school community. Some of the principles highly promoted in GIRFEC is as follows working in partnership with children’s family; putting the child at the centre of any decisions that concern them and letting them have a voice as well as keeping every child and young person safe; as well as many more (Maternal and Early Years) 5.
Early Intervention is important in various sectors such as education, health or crime. It involves identifying when children and families are at risk or that they may be at risk of experiencing difficulties or hardships and intervening in a timely manner to provide effective support. Early Intervention requires everyone involved such as the different professional agencies that may be working with the family or child to work holistically to ensure an effective support system is being provided (Early Intervention Foundation). The purpose of Early intervention is to improve the chance that children who experience any difficulties – which can range from learning difficulties to family circumstances – will receive the support and help required to reduce the affects these difficulties could have on their potential in life (Learning Lift Off).6. The SSSC Codes of Practice for Social Service Workers and Employers set out clear standards of what is expected from professionals working in education, social work or care services in terms of how they should conduct themselves and their practice. This is so that by ensuring there is clear and decisive standards expected from both workers and employers; the individuals using these services receive high quality professional care and that this quality of care is upheld and regulated.
Some example of the codes expected to be followed are as follows:• Codes for Employers – Give workers clear information about their roles and responsibilities, relevant legislation and the policies and procedures they must follow in their work thus ensuring high quality of care as the workers know exactly what is expected of them and the policies they are required to follow in their workplace. Another example for employers would be making it clear to social service workers, people who use services and carers that violence, threats or abuse are not acceptable and havingclear policies and procedures for reducing the risk of violence and managing violent incidents. This would then be ensuring the health, wellbeing and safety of the settings workers and people who use the services.• Codes for Workers – Take necessary steps to reduce the risks of people who use services harming themselves or other people; thus ensuring that all users of the service can do so safely without fear of harm. Another example would be for workers to ask for assistance from their employer or the appropriate authority if they do not feel able to or, well enough prepared to, carry out any part of their work or if they am not sure about how to proceed.Which would then make sure that no mistakes were made in a service users care due to inexperience or lack of preparation. (SSSC)7.
Three signs of neglect, harm and abuse relating to vulnerability factors are as follows: children may be neglected by not being provided adequate food and may be suffering from malnutrition; in severe cases – neglected children have been found raiding trash cans for food sometimes even when they live in a home where their parents have enough to eat. Extremely young children such as babies have an increased vulnerability factor due them not being able to hunt for food as they are too small or can’t walk yet. Children suffering from this type of neglect may appear tired and hungry and also may have ill-fitting clothes and poor hygiene. Children who are suffering from physical abuse may suffer from regular bruising or may not want to change clothes in front of other due to the bruising or scars – in relation to a vulnerability factor disabled children may find it more difficult to convey that they are being bused due to speech or language issues or other issues that may be undercurrent; some children who are severely disabled may not even realise they are being abused. Emotional abuse can occur in a manner of ways from the child being regularly degraded and humiliated to a persistent pattern of the parents showing uncaring behaviour to the child or children – this can occur in case where the parents misuse substances due to the parents perhaps being more concerned and focused on their next use of the substance than their child (Jennie Lindon;2016)8.
Risk enablement is about manageability and proportions – as it is about encouraging for people who are more vulnerable such as children a deeper understanding of the world and he skills we require to live in it. Professionals must ensure that in trying to protect those we are caring for we do not stifle their chances of risk and become afraid of the consequences that may or may not occur from this risk. An example of this would be a young child in a nursery wanting to climb a climbing frame but the practitioner not allowing them to out of fear they will fall; in this example although the practitioner is trying to protect the child she is stifling the child’s right to play. At the centre of risk enablement should be fundamental human or children rights and the questions that should be asked is whether the child’s opinion is being heard and are they being included in the decisions concerning them or are they being taken away from them (Dr Donald Macaskill, 2013)