If, SBDCs, universities, and other institutions tasked with the

If, as we have begun to demonstrate in this study, the creation of entrepreneurs, in reality depends
in a non-trivial manner upon a process that is generally accessible to any individual who is
willing to deliberately practice to create in themselves the required entrepreneurial cognitions,
and if the specific interventions needed are metacognitive in nature, then it may be that the
activities based in the “specialness” paradigm intended to stimulate entrepreneurship (such as
entrepreneur of the year, the listing of curiosities such as youth v. wealth, etc.), have in fact
discouraged it by inadvertently persuading all but the most bold or foolish (in short, all reasonable
persons) that entrepreneurship is not for them (cf. Sarasvathy, 2004). New approaches to the
creation of entrepreneurs are therefore needed.
For example, this confirmation of the deliberate practice method of learning entrepreneurship
suggests that previous approaches to entrepreneurship may have been overly restrictive
(Davidsson, 2003), and therefore the reexamination of existing approaches to entrepreneurship by
SBDCs, universities, and other institutions tasked with the enabling of entrepreneurship within
given communities. We wonder, for example, whether what appears to be an effective way to
think about entrepreneurship—a business-plan focused mindset—may not actually be all that
effective when it comes to creating the expertise needed to function effectively as an
entrepreneur. And what appears to be somewhat abstract and theoretical—metacognitive
development activities—might really be pragmatic and empirically sound, leading to a resurgence
of the “apprenticeship” notion and the raising of the question: Is entrepreneurship a craft or a
trade, like art or plumbing?
From a practice standpoint, it may be time to stop and think about how we think about
entrepreneurship. As Sarasvathy (2004) notes, current thought about entrepreneurship—which
arguably affects current entrepreneurship policy—may overlook our largest constituency: those
individuals who are not entrepreneurs, but want to become entrepreneurs, and just do not know
how. Returning to the quotation by James (1890) which began our paper, by assisting individuals
to alter their own thinking through thinking about that thinking, we as a field may be able to
assist these individuals in enhancing their entrepreneurial expertise, thereby allowing people to
“alter their lives” through more productive wealth creation activities.