However, ECOWAS has focused and achieved more in the

ECOWAS has focused and achieved more in the cooperative application of
political and security issues (Maiangwa, 2014,p.20). ECOWAS has further
attempted to increase cooperation among member states by establishing the
Economic and Social Council, the Community Court of Justice and the Community
Parliament. In particular, ECOWAS has applied several mechanisms to enhance
integration among its member states. Stated briefly ECOWAS member states have
allowed the free movement of its member state citizens.

has also reduced trade tariffs among its member states which has increased
economic growth (Hartzenberg, 2011,pp.16-18). This, in turn, has led to the
allocation of broader markets for service, capital and goods among ECOWAS
member states. There have applications of some standardisation of the
educational curriculum among its constituting countries. ECOWAS has facilitated
peace processes among its member states such as in the cases of Liberia, Sierra
Leone and more recently the intervention in The Gambia to ensure the transfer
of political powers after democratic elections (Babatunde, 2017). ECOWAS
similar to the EAC and the AU considered earlier showed attempts at intuitional

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follows that both at the continental and regional level the extent of success
of African states to institutionalise cooperation needs to assessed which leads
to the final part of this essay. At a continental level, the Organisation of
African Unity (OAU) and its successor the African Union (AU) were discussed.



OAU had been a defective organisation with structural weaknesses due to the
nature of the African states post colonially and the organisations obsession
with non-interference in the affairs of member states. The organisation’s
situation and capacity hindered its ability to implement solutions or prevent
significant conflicts noticeably the Western Sahara conflict (Murithi,
2008,p.74). Hence the OAU was largely unsuccessful as an institution tasked
with facilitating cooperation among African states (Murithi, 2008,p.74).

regard to African Union (AU), the successful formation of the Peace and
Security Council was applied in order to address the structural weakness of its
predecessor the OAU. To illustrate this the Peace and Security Council
coordinated with the Assembly of the AU in order to facilitate the use and
deployment of peacekeepers in the Darfur crises (Murithi, 2008,pp.75-76).

the AU’s member state Togo was sanctioned due to the illegal transfer of power
which contravened the AU’s principles in 2005 (Murithi, 2008,p.77). The AU has
become more interventionist in the affairs of its member states due to the
majority cooperation of African states through legal structures (Murithi,
2008,p.78). However, the AU despite having moderate successes still has several






crises in Darfur is still ongoing with no cessation of hostilities in East
Sudan (Ssenyonjo and Nakitto, 2016,pp.92-93). Despite the presence of AU lead
peacekeepers several war crimes including rape, kidnapping and attacks on
civilians continue to occur within the areas the AU operates in Darfur
indicating its failure in peacekeeping objectives (Ssenyonjo and Nakitto,
2016,pp.94-95). Nevertheless, violence in the Darfur has largely decreased
since 2004 and thus at a continental level, the AU is moderately more
successful than the OAU at instituting cooperation among African states
(Ssenyonjo and Nakitto, 2016,pp.94-95).

reference to the cooperation among the regional organisations, the Senegambian
Confederation was a failure with little noticeable success.  The regions of East African Community (EAC)
and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) have achieved some
successes but equally suffered some failures. Their member states have
conventionally refused to cede sovereignty with a few exceptions (Herbst,
2014,p.102). Thus these member states have impeded integration due to their
refusal to withdraw their own decision-making powers at a regional level in
order to prevent constraint by institutions of EAC and ECOWAS (Herbst,

political, economic and ideological differences exist between the leaders of
the regions member states hence this ultimately leads to failures in
cooperation to achieve all common objectives (Tordoff, 1997,p.275). Equally,
this restrains additional cooperation and reluctance towards integration
(Tordoff, 1997,p.275).



At a
regional level, both the EAC and ECOWAS suffer from inadequate infrastructural
base combined with defective economic policy planning and management (Chazan,
1999,p.317). This is demonstrated through the on-going restricted intraregional
trade among EAC and ECOWAS member states that are focused on export and thus
their infrastructures are geared towards this process (Chazan, 1999,p.318).
This is more evident in ECOWAS as a region where the overwhelming majority of
its member states produce cocoa (Chazan, 1999,p.318).

member states of EAC and ECOWAS are also members of several regional
organisations which lead to disagreements which in turn impeded regional
integration and further cooperation. For example, Tanzania was a member of the
East African Community (EAC), The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
(COMESA) and The Southern African Development Community (SADC) (Akokpari et
al., 2009,p.99). 

As a
result, there are different import tariffs which member states face this leads
to challenges including trade deflection (Akokpari et al., 2009,p.100).
However, there are potential benefits to this arrangement. Investors within and
outside the member states of the EAC and ECOWAS can utilise this as a larger
market base by gaining entry to the market of one member state will ensure entrance
into all the regional markets in place.




conclude the moderate cooperation among the African Union (AU) has been better
and more extensive the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). At a regional
level, the Senegambian Confederation had largely failed. With regard to the
East African Community (EAC) and the Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS), there have been significant successes in the political and security
fields but low successes in the economics field. There are opportunities for
both regions to adopt broader policies for integration in with definitive
action to accept the loss of some state sovereignty for greater economic