How significant was the failure of the Munich putsch of 1923 for the Nazis rise to power in the period of 1924-1933?Level: AS and A Level Subject: History Topic: Modern European History, 1789-1945 Word count: 840SaveHow significant was the failure of the Munich putsch of 1923 for the Nazis rise to power in the period of 1924-1933?The Munich Putsch’s failure in November 1923 played a major part in the Nazis rise to power in the period of 1924-1933 however there were other factors that contributed to the rise in power.On the 8th November Hitler and 600 stormtroopers burst into a meeting that Otto von Lossow and Gustav von Kahr were holding at a local beer hall were 2000 right wing supporters were there. When Hitler and his stormtroopers burst into the meeting, they declared national revolution with gin in hand. The next day on the 9th November 1923 President Ebert in Berlin declared a national state emergency because of the treason in Munich. At noon 2000 armed Nazis marched into Munich. They were met by armed police and Bavarian soldiers. A shot was fired by a Nazis and the police returned fire.
Fourteen Nazis were killed including the person ext to Hitler. The Nazis all fell to the ground and took cover. Hitler fled for two days but was found and then arrested as well as Ludendorff who was arrested two days earlier.
Hitler was put into Landsberg prison.The Munich putsch was a failure as the Nazis failed to gain power and their leader was put in prison. The Nazi party was banned and Hitler was prevented from speaking in public until 1927. Hitler was put on trial with other Nazi leaders. When he was on trail he used it as an opportunity to gain support through the use of propaganda. When Hitler was in prison he began a new strategy for the Nazis by realising that he wouldn’t gain power by rebellion but by standing in the elections.When Hitler was released from prison in December 1924 after serving only 9 months of his sentence he decided to change the whole structure of the party.The Bamberg conference was held on Sunday the 14th February 1926.
The conference was held in Bamberg in upper Franconia in Germany which was a nationalist area. Hitler’s decision to call the meeting was a gamble. It included some sixty members of the leadership of the Nazi party. His aim was to restore some resemblance of the party unity and agree a future programme. Hitler put Ernst Von Salomon in charge of the image of the party. Hitler tried to bring both Nationalist led by Streicher and Socialist led by Strasser sides under control as they had got out of control when Hitler was in prison. This also stopped opposition.
Hitler also reorganised the party. From the Nazi Munich headquarters, Hitler planned a new framework for the party. For reasons of organisation Germany was divided into 35 regions known as Gau. These Gau was led by a Gaulieter. Districts were divided into Kries.
The Kriesleiters took control of them. Each Kries was divided into even smaller units known as Ortsgruppen and supervised by Ortsgruppenleiters, each covered a city or town. Cities and towns were divided into districts known as Zellen under Zellenleiters and groups of houses and flats also called Blocks were placed under Blockleiters. To enforce discipline within the party the Nazis developed a system of courts which was also known as Uschla. The party developed a new strategy which was Fuhrerprinzip which meant the party was run by one leader. They also created a new symbol which was called the Swastika. The Nazi party adopted a salute. This was an outstretched right arm to the sky.
These helped the organisation of the party and they also helped to growth of the party supremely. The reorganisation gave the party more stability as a political group and gave them more support.Propaganda also helped the Nazis rise to power. In 1929 Hitler made Joseph Goebbels minister of propaganda. This gave him control of newspapers, radio, film, art and books. This helped the control grow from strength to strength as they could censor what then people heard and did.The SA was under the new leadership of Franz Von Salomon. It was used to cease street hooligans and to spread Nazi propaganda and organising demonstrations against Jews and Communist.
The SA also known as the stormtroopers/Brown shirts were reduced in numbers to create the SS which were known as the Black shirts in 1926. The SS was Hitler’s bodyguard service which was an elite force. In 1929 Heinrich Himmler became its leader. It was used to protect Hitler and gain support.