Here the current adjustment is most frequentamong these three strategies which are followed by the households.There is a lack of documentation ofindigenous knowledge and practices which is found in the literature review. Anattempt has also been made to review how the govt. and NGOs influence copingstrategies. Mukherjee (2009) reflects on the seasonal gender-specificvulnerabilities to show how the problems compound for poor woman in Bangladeshduring the deficit season.
The study del Niño et al.(2001) reveals thecoping strategies of household following the 1998 Hood including borrowing,reducing expenditure and selling assets. Among them the major coping mechanismof the household is borrowing in terms of both the value of the resources. Tocover the shortfalls of consumption, credit were sought from informal sources. 2.2 Basic human needs and vulnerabilityBooks and adger (2005) point out that the conceptof adaptive capacity makes sense in the context of what resources and systemswould be affected by climate change.
The U.S. Agency for International Development’s projectFamine Early Warning systems(FEWS 1999) focused its vulnerability assessmentguidance on food security.Books et al.
(2005) list 46 proxy variables;the researchers specially include geography, governance, demography andtechnology. They looked for correlations among these vulnerability proxies andhistorical decadal mortaliu and derived from these results 11 key indicators ofvulnerability: population with access to sanitation, literacy rate (15-24 years),voice and life expectancy at birth.In contrast to Azar et al.(2005) this set ofindicators explicitly considers some aspects of reproductive health and genderequity. These efforts at compiling indicators do not specify in their lists ormodels the interactions and feedbacks among the factors in vulnerability. 2.3 Conceptual and Analytical FrameworkTo understand why a hazard becomes a disasterand for whom, the concept of vulnerability is crucial. Using the concept ofvulnerability as a characteristic of exposure to hazards has allowedresearchers to evade the problems of what causes vulnerability (Canon 2001).
In social science, the human dimension ofvulnerability has received significant attention. A person’s vulnerability canbe identified by the interaction of natural events and economical, politicaland social factors. Canon (2001) points out that most usages ofthe idea of vulnerability accepts that it is part of a continuum or ranking of people.That vulnerability implies at the negative end of that scale.Adger (1999) argues that vulnerability shouldbe seen as the exposure of a group or individual to stress because of theenvironmental and social change .This definition contrast with the dominantviews of vulnerability to disaster.