Gasperi goal of this strategy was to decrease the

Gasperi
et al .,(2014)  states that marine litter intended to examine
the quality and quantity of floating plastic debris in the River Seine through
use of an extensive regional network of floating debris-retention booms. The significant
proportion consisted of food wrappers/containers and plastic cutlery, probably
originating from voluntary or involuntary dumping, urban discharges and surface
runoff. Most plastic items are made of polypropylene, polyethylene and, to a
lesser extent, polyethylene terephthalate.Ogata et al., (2009) states that effect of PCB concentrations in
polyethylene pellets.

 

Shevealy et al., (2011) explained about Honolulu
strategy tool. They were
described and catalyzed the multi-pronged and holistic response required to
solve the problem of marine debris .To guide monitoring and evaluation of
global progress on specific strategies at different levels of implementation
including local, national, regional, and international efforts and
achievements. The important goal of this strategy was to decrease the
ecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide.

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The abundance and distribution of
anthropogenic debris show considerable spatial variability. The geographical
distribution of plastic debris is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics,
geomorphology and anthropogenic activity. Barnes et al., (2009). Singare,
P.U., (2012) suggested that
plastics accumulation and synthetic rubber can be controlled by recycling and
incineration and glass based material accumulation can be controlled only by
recycling. The investigation of Thane creek indicates that plastics carry bags,
milk/oil bags, plastic bottles and foot wares are some of the major NBDSW
materials responsible for solid waste pollution.Glasby, G.P. and Roonwal, G.S., (1995) reviewed about sources of
marine pollution and its management. They were also discussed about domestic
sewage, pesticide, oil and industrial wastes and its occurrence.

 

Population
growth and rising income have resulted in a rapid growth in MSW generation rate
of the Chennai. Solid waste management accomplished  by source segregation, door to door
collection, abolition of open storage, daily sweeping of the street , wastes
processing by energy recovery or composting and  sanitary
landfilling. The Chennai waste management shows that cost effective waste
management is provided by the private sector. Esakku, S., et al.,
(2007).

 

Lee, D.I., Cho, H.S. and Jeong, S.B., (2006) explained
about marine litter has also become one of the serious environmental,
economical (especially fisheries) and social problems in Korea. Thus, it was
urgently required to develop practical management strategies to control the
input from shipping (fisheries activities) and land (through rivers), to assess
their potential impact on marine environments and fishery resources, and to
clean up the accumulated debris on the seabed. Survey the amounts of
distribution patterns of marine litter in ports and major fisheries areas,
which aim to provide the practical guidelines for clean-up operations, and
development of technical equipment  for
practical prevention of inputs of land-based litter through rivers and recovery
of marine litter on shallow and deep sea bottoms, treatment and/or reuse of
marine litter. The main functions of Containment
Booms was prevent spreading of the marine floating debris and the
effective collection. The development of a barrier system for floating debris
in rivers is introduced. The system is designed to prevent pollution of coastal
waters caused by marine debris which originates from land. The system consists
of a barrier boom, a mooring system and a boom winder.

 

A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep
seafloor (30–300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three
Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian
Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of
debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic
objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were
found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09–0.12 debris m-2),
proving intense fishing activity. Angiolillo,
M., et al., (2015).Moore, S.L. and
Allen, M.J., (2000) evaluate and quantify marine debris found along
beaches and seafloor by trawling. They were reported fishing gear was the most
common type of anthropogenic debris.

Sesini, M., (2011)
states that sources of plastic debris can be land-based (estimated at eighty
percent) or ocean-based and they relate to four main categories: sewage,
tourism, fishing, and waste from ships and boats. He suggested that innovative technology
development are essential to reduce plastic entering from land into the marine
environment. Research should assess the impact of persistent material on the
oceans, on the other hand technology should consider prevention, removal, and
ways of recycling.

 

Huber, S.M., explained about   the effectiveness of long yellow floating
barrier in Eslava creek and Woodcock branch. This study carried out visual
observations of the barrier and the surrounding area were taken before, during,
and after a rainfall event to examine how much debris is actually caught and
where the debris comes from. He suggested that, the study can be used to decide
whether another debris barrier would be an appropriate investment, and identify
possible modes of improvement for a future installation.

(Do
not mentioned year in this article).

 

Vegter, A.C., et al., (2014) highlights a growing concern
related to threats posed to marine wildlife from marine litter and fragmented
plastic debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the
urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships
to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future
impacts of plastic pollution. They suggested that the costs and
benefits of mitigating plastic pollution, such as debris-retention booms that
intercept plastic debris prior to dilution at sea, can significantly reduce
damage to wildlife.

 

Wahl, T.L., (1992) describes about structures
and equipment most commonly encountered on reclamation projects, namely trash
racks, stationary and traveling screens and mechanical raking equipment. Trash
control structures must remove debris that would cause damage or operational
difficulties at downstream facilities. Booms are often provided upstream of
spillways, intakes, or screening structures for collect large floating debris.

Phillips, D.L., (1998) reported that,
understanding the sources, quantities, composition and transport mechanisms of
litter entering the drainage system and examination of methods for its removal.
One agreement was signed during August 1996 to design, install and monitor ten
prototypes in a two-year program under a $100,000 grant. The capture efficiency
of the device was very high compare other litter collection device. The
objective of the project was to determine the trapping efficiency of each
prototypes. The goal of the project to develop a litter trap that removed
floating materials from urban stormwater.

Hunter, G.J., (2003) explained the different
types of traps which were used in stormwater for removal of floating debris. He
describes clearly about proprietary of the devices and installing location of
device that best suits for their individual design characteristics at source,
in-line, end of line etc.

Begum, S., Rasul, M.G. and Brown, R.J., (2008) discussed
about pollutant trapping efficiency and comparative study of devices. This
study is very useful to take quick decisions about the most efficient and cost
effective measures.

Richard
C. Lathrop et al., (2012) describes floating blue green algae removed by three sided trapezoid shaped deflector boom.
This boom system preventing algae scums and other floating debris from entering
the enclosed swimming area at B.B. Clarke Beach.

The research described in this feasibility
report of “How the oceans can
clean themselves” indicates that
The Ocean Cleanup Array is a feasible and viable method to remove large amounts
of plastic pollution from a major accumulation zone known as the Great Pacific
Garbage Patch (Boyan et
al., 2016). The amount of
plastics found ocean and modelled scenarios depending on where the
plastic-removal devices are located (Jambeck,
2015). Modeling marine surface
microplastic is transported
to assess optimal removal locations (Sherman et al., 2016). The characterization of marine plastics and their environmental
impacts (Florian et al., 2014).Plastic waste (Management and Handling)
Rules, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 2016.Production
status of plastic in India (FICCI, 2014).

       The state of plastic waste is
notoriously hard to measure.  There are
five major gyres in the world: the North Pacific, the South Pacific, the Indian
Ocean, the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic. These act as accumulation
zones for marine debris, which is forced into the centre where winds and
currents are weaker (Moore et al., 2001). Main sources and movement pathways for plastic in the ma­rine
environment. (Kershaw et al., 2011).  Scientists estimate that there
are currently trillions of pieces of plastic in the ocean – that means there
are more pieces of plastic in the ocean than stars in our galaxy (Jambeck  et al.,
2015). Andrady (2011) studied the micro plastics in the marine
environment. The accurate estimates of total plastic content in the
upper ocean should take the effect of wind-induced mixing into account (Kukulka
et al., 2012; Collignon et al., 2012). Jayasiri
et
al.
(2013) assessed the quantity of plastic
debris occurring on recreational
beaches in Mumbai and reported
the seasonal changes in the debris load. Sul et al. (2014) discussed about present
and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.