Gasperiet al .
,(2014) states that marine litter intended to examinethe quality and quantity of floating plastic debris in the River Seine throughuse of an extensive regional network of floating debris-retention booms. The significantproportion consisted of food wrappers/containers and plastic cutlery, probablyoriginating from voluntary or involuntary dumping, urban discharges and surfacerunoff. Most plastic items are made of polypropylene, polyethylene and, to alesser extent, polyethylene terephthalate.Ogata et al., (2009) states that effect of PCB concentrations inpolyethylene pellets.
Shevealy et al., (2011) explained about Honolulustrategy tool. They weredescribed and catalyzed the multi-pronged and holistic response required tosolve the problem of marine debris .
To guide monitoring and evaluation ofglobal progress on specific strategies at different levels of implementationincluding local, national, regional, and international efforts andachievements. The important goal of this strategy was to decrease theecological, human health, and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide. The abundance and distribution ofanthropogenic debris show considerable spatial variability. The geographicaldistribution of plastic debris is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics,geomorphology and anthropogenic activity. Barnes et al.
, (2009). Singare,P.U., (2012) suggested thatplastics accumulation and synthetic rubber can be controlled by recycling andincineration and glass based material accumulation can be controlled only byrecycling. The investigation of Thane creek indicates that plastics carry bags,milk/oil bags, plastic bottles and foot wares are some of the major NBDSWmaterials responsible for solid waste pollution.Glasby, G.
P. and Roonwal, G.S.
, (1995) reviewed about sources ofmarine pollution and its management. They were also discussed about domesticsewage, pesticide, oil and industrial wastes and its occurrence. Populationgrowth and rising income have resulted in a rapid growth in MSW generation rateof the Chennai. Solid waste management accomplished by source segregation, door to doorcollection, abolition of open storage, daily sweeping of the street , wastesprocessing by energy recovery or composting and sanitarylandfilling.
The Chennai waste management shows that cost effective wastemanagement is provided by the private sector. Esakku, S., et al.,(2007). Lee, D.
I., Cho, H.S. and Jeong, S.B., (2006) explainedabout marine litter has also become one of the serious environmental,economical (especially fisheries) and social problems in Korea. Thus, it wasurgently required to develop practical management strategies to control theinput from shipping (fisheries activities) and land (through rivers), to assesstheir potential impact on marine environments and fishery resources, and toclean up the accumulated debris on the seabed.
Survey the amounts ofdistribution patterns of marine litter in ports and major fisheries areas,which aim to provide the practical guidelines for clean-up operations, anddevelopment of technical equipment forpractical prevention of inputs of land-based litter through rivers and recoveryof marine litter on shallow and deep sea bottoms, treatment and/or reuse ofmarine litter. The main functions of ContainmentBooms was prevent spreading of the marine floating debris and theeffective collection. The development of a barrier system for floating debrisin rivers is introduced. The system is designed to prevent pollution of coastalwaters caused by marine debris which originates from land. The system consistsof a barrier boom, a mooring system and a boom winder. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deepseafloor (30–300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of threeItalian regions in the TyrrhenianSea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV).
The dominant type ofdebris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plasticobjects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears werefound on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09–0.12 debris m-2),proving intense fishing activity. Angiolillo,M.
, et al., (2015).Moore, S.L. andAllen, M.
J., (2000) evaluate and quantify marine debris found alongbeaches and seafloor by trawling. They were reported fishing gear was the mostcommon type of anthropogenic debris.
Sesini, M., (2011)states that sources of plastic debris can be land-based (estimated at eightypercent) or ocean-based and they relate to four main categories: sewage,tourism, fishing, and waste from ships and boats. He suggested that innovative technologydevelopment are essential to reduce plastic entering from land into the marineenvironment. Research should assess the impact of persistent material on theoceans, on the other hand technology should consider prevention, removal, andways of recycling. Huber, S.M., explained about the effectiveness of long yellow floatingbarrier in Eslava creek and Woodcock branch.
This study carried out visualobservations of the barrier and the surrounding area were taken before, during,and after a rainfall event to examine how much debris is actually caught andwhere the debris comes from. He suggested that, the study can be used to decidewhether another debris barrier would be an appropriate investment, and identifypossible modes of improvement for a future installation.(Donot mentioned year in this article). Vegter, A.C., et al.
, (2014) highlights a growing concernrelated to threats posed to marine wildlife from marine litter and fragmentedplastic debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and theurgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnershipsto limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the futureimpacts of plastic pollution. They suggested that the costs andbenefits of mitigating plastic pollution, such as debris-retention booms thatintercept plastic debris prior to dilution at sea, can significantly reducedamage to wildlife. Wahl, T.L., (1992) describes about structuresand equipment most commonly encountered on reclamation projects, namely trashracks, stationary and traveling screens and mechanical raking equipment.
Trashcontrol structures must remove debris that would cause damage or operationaldifficulties at downstream facilities. Booms are often provided upstream ofspillways, intakes, or screening structures for collect large floating debris.Phillips, D.L., (1998) reported that,understanding the sources, quantities, composition and transport mechanisms oflitter entering the drainage system and examination of methods for its removal.One agreement was signed during August 1996 to design, install and monitor tenprototypes in a two-year program under a $100,000 grant. The capture efficiencyof the device was very high compare other litter collection device. Theobjective of the project was to determine the trapping efficiency of eachprototypes.
The goal of the project to develop a litter trap that removedfloating materials from urban stormwater.Hunter, G.J.
, (2003) explained the differenttypes of traps which were used in stormwater for removal of floating debris. Hedescribes clearly about proprietary of the devices and installing location ofdevice that best suits for their individual design characteristics at source,in-line, end of line etc.Begum, S., Rasul, M.
G. and Brown, R.J., (2008) discussedabout pollutant trapping efficiency and comparative study of devices. Thisstudy is very useful to take quick decisions about the most efficient and costeffective measures. RichardC. Lathrop et al.
, (2012) describes floating blue green algae removed by three sided trapezoid shaped deflector boom.This boom system preventing algae scums and other floating debris from enteringthe enclosed swimming area at B.B. Clarke Beach.The research described in this feasibilityreport of “How the oceans canclean themselves” indicates thatThe Ocean Cleanup Array is a feasible and viable method to remove large amountsof plastic pollution from a major accumulation zone known as the Great PacificGarbage Patch (Boyan etal., 2016). The amount ofplastics found ocean and modelled scenarios depending on where theplastic-removal devices are located (Jambeck,2015). Modeling marine surfacemicroplastic is transportedto assess optimal removal locations (Sherman et al.
, 2016). The characterization of marine plastics and their environmentalimpacts (Florian et al., 2014).Plastic waste (Management and Handling)Rules, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 2016.Productionstatus of plastic in India (FICCI, 2014). The state of plastic waste isnotoriously hard to measure. There arefive major gyres in the world: the North Pacific, the South Pacific, the IndianOcean, the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic. These act as accumulationzones for marine debris, which is forced into the centre where winds andcurrents are weaker (Moore et al.
, 2001). Main sources and movement pathways for plastic in the marineenvironment. (Kershaw et al., 2011). Scientists estimate that thereare currently trillions of pieces of plastic in the ocean – that means thereare more pieces of plastic in the ocean than stars in our galaxy (Jambeck et al.
,2015). Andrady (2011) studied the micro plastics in the marineenvironment. The accurate estimates of total plastic content in theupper ocean should take the effect of wind-induced mixing into account (Kukulkaet al., 2012; Collignon et al., 2012).
Jayasirietal.(2013) assessed the quantity of plasticdebris occurring on recreationalbeaches in Mumbai and reportedthe seasonal changes in the debris load. Sul et al.
(2014) discussed about presentand future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.