Fungi the ascus, which is a sac-like unit, harboring

Fungi in the third
phyla, phylum Ascomycota, are the
most abundant phylum as more than 65.000 species belong here. Their trademark
is their structural component, the ascus, which is a sac-like unit, harboring
eight ascospores, in which sexual and asexual reproduction occurs. The formation
of this component arises when a spore lands on a suitable substrate, after
which a haploid mycelium is formed. From this mycelium, asexual structures or
sexual structures can be produced. The female sexual structure is called
ascogonium, while the male sexual structure is an antheridium. Initiation of
sexual reproduction occurs when male and female sexual components merge, which
forms a single organism with separate nuclei, called an ascogonoius hyphae. Following
this, their nuclei merge at the end of the ascogonius hyphae and they go
through a round of meiosis. Next to meiosis, mitosis happens, leading to the
formation of a total of eight mature ascospores– ready to be released. Due to the sheer amount
of species, phylum Ascomycota, exert both a positive and negative effect on the
human condition. Beneficial species such as Penicillium
notatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
contribute to our health and or ability to produce beverages, while malign
effects are seen by species of the Aspergillus genus who can cause respiratory
disease, decay food, synthetize carcinogenic toxins in nuts etc. The
Aspergillus genus will be investigated extensively later in this paper.

The
fourth phyla, Basidiomycata, are next
to Ascomycota the most abundant phyla with more than 30.000 separate species
and because of this abundance, their diversity is large and plentiful. This
phylum encompasses the largest and most complex fungi, in which most species share
a common structural component coined basidium. 
The basidium is a club shaped structure, in which meiosis takes place
and where basidiospores are synthesized, often located on fruiting bodies such
as mushrooms.

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Basidiomycota
reproduce asexually by producing spores or by a mechanism called budding, in
which an extension of a cell is separated into its own cell. Sexual
reproduction happens when haploid hyphae meet and fuse, often followed by the
transfer of a nuclei from each parent hyphae to the other, which reproduces
mitotic, thus, creating a dikaryotic mycelium.  From dikaryotic mycelium a fruiting body
arises, by hyphae, who communicate and create different components. Some create
the stalk, other the gills of the fruiting body. The tips of the hyphae which
constitutes the gills is the basidium and when these swell, nuclei are fused
and a bit after 4 basidiospores are formed, which will then be ready to be
released. Basidiomycota play an important role in ecosystems, as they achieve
nutrient by breaking down decomposing organic material, unfortunately they also
break down wood, which have negative economical consequences.