For prevention effort involving women and men, which focused

For example, Men as Partners, a program
in South Africa, works directly with men to create more equitable gender norms
by reducing violence against women and helping both men and women attend to
their health needs.151 Also in South Africa, the One Man Can campaign, created by Sonke
Gender Justice, seeks to provide a critical space for men to reflect on the
practice of masculinities, reshape men’s understanding of their own and others’
HIV/AIDS vulnerabilities and risks, and encourage men to change their views and
practices of sexual and domestic violence.152,153 Finally, South Africa’s Medical Research Council refined,
implemented, and evaluated Stepping Stones, an HIV prevention effort involving
women and men, which focused on gender equity, HIV prevention, and antiviolence
work.154 At the 2-year follow-up, men who participated in the
intervention reported fewer partners, more frequent condom use, less
transactional sex, less substance abuse, and less perpetration of intimate
partner violence.155

Underscoring the importance of gender
specificity in programming for men, approaches such as these have been termed
gender empowering and transformative.156 A global meta-analysis of programs for men on health issues
shows that gender-specific, gender-empowering, or gender-transformative
programs for men related to HIV and reproductive health are even more effective
than gender-neutral ones,157 confirming the need to move beyond a vulnerability paradigm.

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