For prevention effort involving women and men, which focused

For example, Men as Partners, a programin South Africa, works directly with men to create more equitable gender normsby reducing violence against women and helping both men and women attend totheir health needs.151 Also in South Africa, the One Man Can campaign, created by SonkeGender Justice, seeks to provide a critical space for men to reflect on thepractice of masculinities, reshape men’s understanding of their own and others’HIV/AIDS vulnerabilities and risks, and encourage men to change their views andpractices of sexual and domestic violence.152,153 Finally, South Africa’s Medical Research Council refined,implemented, and evaluated Stepping Stones, an HIV prevention effort involvingwomen and men, which focused on gender equity, HIV prevention, and antiviolencework.154 At the 2-year follow-up, men who participated in theintervention reported fewer partners, more frequent condom use, lesstransactional sex, less substance abuse, and less perpetration of intimatepartner violence.155Underscoring the importance of genderspecificity in programming for men, approaches such as these have been termedgender empowering and transformative.156 A global meta-analysis of programs for men on health issuesshows that gender-specific, gender-empowering, or gender-transformativeprograms for men related to HIV and reproductive health are even more effectivethan gender-neutral ones,157 confirming the need to move beyond a vulnerability paradigm.