Feminism is an organised activity on
behalf of women’s rights and it is the theory of the social and political
fairness of the sexes. It’s a move to end the oppression of women, and it
concerns questions of gender in IR (Robert Jackson, 2016)NEL1 . I
will be looking deep into feminism and its contributions to IRNEL2 .
International Relation feminist’ prime focus is on the simplest inequalities
between man and women, and the consequences that these inequalities have in
world politics. In short, gender is about the social conduct that is learnt
when differentiating masculinity and femininity (Peterson V.S, 2010). NEL3 There are many theories of feminism such as liberal feminists who focus
on securing equal rights and want all women to have access to education.
Moreover, Marxist feminists’ look at how to change the domineering
socioeconomic constructions of capitalist society (Steans, 1998). Furthermore,
Post-modern feminists do not agree that a theory can tell ”one true story”
about an individual’s human experience. In other words, feminist’s’ goal is to
explain the role of gender in the theory and practice of IR by finding women in
world politics, and to explore how women are affected by structures and
behaviour in the international system (Tickner, 2008). Gender is
constructed individually, depending on the interactions that the individual has
with other personalities.
consists of mainly political and social movements that share a mutual goal;
achieving social and political equality. This means to have equal opportunities
for women, ranging from education and professionalism prospects. There have
been many organisations, protests and campaigns fighting for women’s rights,
such as equal pay. They have also fought for topics like protection from rape,
harassment and violence. Many feminists also fight for men’s liberation due to
them also being stereotyped by gender roles (Hooks, 2000). Feminist theory was
created by feminist movements and its goal was to further the knowledge of the
nature of gender inequality by looking at the roles that women social had and
their experiences. This led to theories being developed in multiple ways to
respond to important issues such as gender (Chodorow, 1989). Over the years,
there have been multiple ideologies that have been developed that represent
different goals and perspectives. Numerous feminists groups have been criticised
due to only taking into account white middle class standpoints. This led to the
creation black feminism and many other multicultural forms of feminism (Weeden, 2002). Post-feminism is
the 1980s viewpoints reacting to feminism. The term post-feminism was created
due to the counterattack that occurred against second-wave feminism, and it is
now used to numerous theories that critique previous feminist challenges (Jones, 1994).
theory is a theory that further looks into the philosophical side of feminism. It
consists of women’s studies, economics, sociology and many more criticism (Gilligan,
The theory purpose is to comprehend gender inequality and looks into gender
politics, women’s rights and interests. Topics that are looked and discussed in
feminist theory consist of stereotyping, oppression, sexual objectification and
such as Eleanor Roosevelt have seen and experienced that politics is a world
ruled by men. Looking at the most powerful individuals in international
politics, most are men. In the 1980s, women constituted less than 5% in Foreign
Service ranks. When women do get into higher positions in politics, they often
suffer. One example of this is Jeane Kirkpatrick, yet after all of her accomplishments
that she had in politics and in the United Nations, she complained that most of
her peers would not take her seriously. She described herself as a ”mouse in a
man’s world”, and claimed that she had no voice in the American foreign policy (Tickner J.
Our generation is a gendered world
that associate masculinity (e.g. strong, rational) as a higher level of value
and power. Whereas femininity is seen as (e.g. emotional, weak) a lower level.
This is a gender hierarchy, where men have more privilege than women (Sterling-Folker, 2013). There is a theory in feminism called social construction of gender
that discusses the source of the gender differences between a man and a woman.
It focuses on. In relation to this view, it is because of society and culture
that gender roles are created, and these roles are idyllic behaviour for a
person of that exact sex. Some argue that the reason for the difference in
these behaviours amongst men and women are due to social conventions.NEL4 Gender was adopted to biologically differentiate sex, and socialise
characteristics of masculinity and femininity. Some argue that gender identity
is not a stable trait, but instead it’s a socially constructed and may change
for time for a person (Diamond L M, 2008).