Experimental study of mechanical and microbial properties of spent mushroom substrate reinforced acoustic boards.PROJECT ABSTRACT:In recent decade agriculture waste in India have been generated enormously. One of the agriculture wastes is spent mushroom substrate, Mushroom is produced form rice straw bed and after the production mushroom substrate is allowed to degraded or used for gasifier. Our project is focused on using mushroom substrate and making composite board from it and using instead of plywood. Our aim is to produce low cost plywood. Mushroom substrate is pretreated and mixed with magnesium oxide in proper ratio and it is produced in hot compression molding machine. After that physical test such as tensile, compression, Three point bending test, water absorption test, wire test, Flame test, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity have been done on the sample.
KEYWORDS:Spent Mushroom substrate, resin, magnesium oxide, testingLITURATURE SURVEY:Noise is one of the major air pollutants, which will have severe impact on living organisms. The world health organization (WHO) states that the continuous exposure to noise will have adverse effect on human beings in the form of hearing loss, sleep disturbance and even it affects the immune systems10, 11. In the built environment, the sources of noise is broadly classified in to two: 1) external noise intruding the rooms such as noise emanating from HVACs 2) internal or self-generated noise, for an instance noise generated from the call centers (communication area noise) 12, 13 Both internal and externally generated noise can be controlled using passive and active methods 14, 15 In passive techniques, the desired acoustical effect is achieved by using porous materials as wall and ceiling claddings for sound absorption and insulation13, 1416 In majority of the building applications, the desired acoustical environment is achieved by employing passive method so as to reduce the cost and active methods are seldom used.
Nevertheless, passive medium of noise control is effective mainly for mid and higher frequency and active methods are powerful in controlling low frequency noise 17.Rockwool, glass wool and mineral wool are widely used to provide desired sound and thermal insulation inside the building18–21 However, these materials cause various health related issues such as lung diseases and skin irritations and usage of these materials are banned in many countries 21, 22. Hence, researchers and the industrialists are concentrating to develop a cost effective solution.
These can be achieved by employing naturally available porous materials such as porous rocks, sands, soil on the earth surfaces, water saturated granular but they are not abundant22, 23. Therefore, researchers are developing porous materials by using different types of natural fibres obtained from plants and trees.The wood fiber extracted from Arenga pinnata was initially proposed to be an alternate to Pinus radiate, which is widely used. However, the panels made of Arenga pinnata are effective only for the frequencies between 2000- 4000 Hz 24 The absorption coefficient of these panels shows very poor sound absorption in low frequency range (less than 500 Hz) than the panels made of palm tree fiber and coir fiber. Panels made by mixing rice straw particles with wood particles were proposed by25. It showed superior sound absorption performances in higher frequencies than plywood,particle and fiber board’s 25 . Fibers extracted from durian, bamboo, eucalypt species and Indonesian Hardwood were also considered for acoustic panels and they are effective for mid to high frequencies24–27.Coir fibers extracted from coconuts are another most preferred acoustic material for its lower weight and cost 28.
To achieve better sound transmission loss and maximum absorption, perforated panels should be incorporated between two coir boards28, 29. However, their availability is restricted to tropical countries and the major problem is drying of coconut fruit to extract fibre from it. Fiber extracted from largely available rain-fed crop “Jute” is used along with natural rubber to produce acoustic panels mainly for domestic and automotive applications. To our knowledge, so far rice straw was not used with minerals for building applications.Manufacturing of mineral boards blended with rice straw will reduce the carbon foot print and usage of these boards will help to develop eco- friendly buildings.Since people spend majority of their time in indoor environment, researchers mainly focus on built conditions such as thermal comfort, air quality and energy. However, the occupants of indoor exposed to various bio-aerosols which can both help and create adverse health problems to occupants30.
Due to global warming, majority of the places including schools, hospitals and offices are provided with air conditioning systems which generally re circulate the air. This enhances the microbes to grow in different building materials. The microbes and cellular components causes various health related problems such as “sick building syndrome” and pulmonary diseases16.
The intensity of infectious and non-infectious diseases is not only depend on the biological properties and chemical composition but also on the site of deposition on the human body16. Korpi et al., 1998 investigated the volatile organic components (VOC) excreted by various microbes at different Relative Humidity (RH) conditions. It concluded that no single microbial initiated volatile organic component (VMOC) can serve as indicator for various species present in the indoor air.These microbes not only causes health related problems but also reduces the durability and aesthetic appearance of these materials6. The first article published on microbe induced degradation on building was in the year 189031. Since then, large number of articles were published on the diversity of microorganisms causing damages to the building materials 31. To overcome these problems, anti-microbial paints dispersed with nano particles were developed.
Due to the size of nano particles, it may rupture the cell walls when they interact with microorganisms32. Silver nano materials are one of the very popular nano particles suspended in anti-microbial paints and their side effects are not investigated extensively32. Although many microorganisms are isolates, to our knowledge, no anti-microbial, incorporates materials is used to treat the building materials were isolated, to our knowledge no manufacturing system utilized organic anti-microbial materials. Therefore, It is very essential to develop alternate materials and manufacturing process to utilize by agro wastes for manufacturing sustainable building materials. Moreover, it is also necessary to develop organic based antimicrobial agents for mineral boards to curtail the problems of aerosols in the built environmentMETHODOLOGY:Problem identificationLiterature surveySelection of material and resinSample FabricationTesting on environmental conditionFinal productREFERENCE:1 M. Rameshkumar, P.
S. Alagirisamy, M. Sakthivel, A. Mahalingam, and R. BVA, “A Review of Building Acoustic Materials,” in acoustic 2013, 2013, pp.
107–112.2 P. Taylor, K. M.
Hendry, and E. C. Cole, “Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health : Current Issues A review of mycotoxins in indoor air,” no. June 2013, pp. 37–41.3 A.
Korpi, A. L. Pasanen, and P. Pasanen, “Volatile Compounds Originating from Mixed Microbial cultures on building materials under various humidity conditions,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2914–2919, 1998.4 A. Hyvarinen, T. Meklin, A.
Vepsalainen, and A. Nevalainen, “Fungi and actinobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials – Concentrations and diversity,” Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., vol. 49, no.
1, pp. 27–37, 2002.5 K. M. Hendry and E. C.Cole, “A review of mycotoxins in indoor air,” J.
Toxicol. Environ. Heal.
Curr. Issues, no. June 2013, pp. 37–41, 2007.6 N. DE Belie, W. Jianyun, Wi. DE Muynck, S.
M. Blanco, and I. S. Perez, “Microbial interactions with mineral building materials,” J.
Chinease Ceram. Soc., vol. 42, no. 5, pp.
1689–1699, 2014.7 S. Panyakaew and S. Fotios, “New thermal insulation boards made from coconut husk and bagasse,” Energy Build., 2011.
8 F. Asdrubali and F. D. Alessandro, “A review of unconventional sustainable building insulation materials,” no. JUNE, 2015.9 V.
Bradshaw, “Human comfort and health requirements,” Build. Environ. Act. Passiv. Control Syst.
, pp. 3–38, 2006.10 P.
M. Rabinowitz, “Noise-induced hearing loss,” Am. Fam. Physician, vol. 61, no.
9, pp. 2749–2756, 2000.11 H.
Ising and B. Kruppa, “Health effects caused by noise: evidence in the literature from the past 25 years.,” Noise Health, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 5–13, 2004.
12 A. Elson, “Architectural Acoustics,” Music. Q.
, vol. VII, no. 4, pp. 469–482, 1921.13 T. D.
Rossing and L. L. Beranek, “Handbook of Acoustics,” American Journal of Physics, vol. 77, no. 12. p.
1197, 2009.14 L. E. Kinsler, A.
R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V Sanders, “Fundamentals of acoustics,” Fundamentals of Acoustics, 4th Edition, by Lawrence E. Kinsler, Austin R. Frey, Alan B. Coppens, James V.
Sanders, pp. 560. ISBN 0-471-84789-5. Wiley-VCH, December 1999.
, vol. 1. p. 560, 1999.15 S. J.
Elliott and P. A. Nelson, “Active Noise Control,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 10, no.
4, pp. 12–35, 1993.16 J.
S. Pastuszka, U. Kyaw Tha Paw, D. O. Lis, A. Wlaz?o, and K. Ulfig, “Bacterial and fungal aerosol in indoor environment in Upper Silesia, Poland,” Atmos. Environ.
, vol. 34, no. 22, pp.
3833–3842, 2000.17 F. Asdrubali, S. Schiavoni, and K. Horoshenkov, A review of sustainable materials for acoustic applications, vol.
19, no. 4. 2012.18 J. Landaluze, I. Portilla, J. J. .
Pagalday, A. Mart Inez, R. Reyero, A. Martinez, and R. Reyero, “Application of active noise control to an elevator cabin,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 11, no.
12, pp. 1423–1431, 2003.19 J.
P. Arenas and M. J. Crocker, “Recent Trends in Porous Sound-Absorbing Materials,” Sound Vib., pp. 1–6, 2010.
20 K. M. Ho, Z.
Yang, X. X. Zhang, and P.
Sheng, “Measurements of sound transmission through panels of locally resonant materials between impedance tubes,” Appl. Acoust., 2005.21 M.
J. Crocker, “Theory of Sound-Predictions and Measurement,” in Handbook of Noise and Vibration Control, 2008, pp. 17–42.22 K. Attenborough, “Acoustical characteristics of porous materials,” Physics Reports, vol. 82, no.
3. pp. 179–227, 1982.
23 M. Vašina, D. C. Hughes, K.
V. Horoshenkov, and L. Lap?ík, “The acoustical properties of consolidated expanded clay granulates,” Appl. Acoust., vol.
67, no. 8, pp. 787–796, 2006.24 L. Ismail, M. M. I.
Ghazali, S. Mahzan, A. Mujahid, and A. Zaidi, “Sound Absorption of Arenga Pinnata Natural Fiber,” World Acad.
Sci. …, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 804–806, 2010.
25 X. Li, Z. Cai, J. E. Winandy, and A.
H. Basta, “Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4662–4666, 2010.
26 L. Karlinasari, H. Baihaqi, A. Maddu, and T. R. Mardikanto, “The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species,” Makara J.
Sci., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 110–114, 2012.27 L.
Karlinasari, D. Hermawan, A. Maddu, B. Martianto, I. K. Lucky, N.
Nugroho, and Y. S. Hadi, “Acoustical Properties of Particleboards Made From Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) As Building Construction Material,” BioResources, vol. 7, no.
4, pp. 5700–5709, 2012.28 J. Khedari, N. Nankongnab, J.
Hirunlabh, and S. Teekasap, “New low-cost insulation particleboards from mixture of durian peel and coconut coir,” Build. Environ., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2004.29 T.
Koizumi, N. Tsujiuchi, and A. Adachi, “The development of sound absorbing materials using natural bamboo fibers,” 2002.30 A. J. P.
Ii and L. C. Marr, “Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment,” Microbiome, pp. 1–10, 2015.ESTIMATEDTIME FRAME:APRILMARCH MARCHFEB FEBJANJANReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of SampleProduction Of SampleLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinRough budget estimation:TESTING COST FOR SAMPLES.NOTEST NAMESTANDARDSCOST01TensileEN160730000CompressionEN82910002Modulus Of RuptureEN12089100003Water Absorption & SwellingIS2380150004Smoke DensityASTME662300005Fire TestBS476 PART 5, 6,7800006Thermal ConductivityIS334610,60007Falling WeightIS15476200008FungalIS48731000009TermiteIS4833900010Impedance Tube100011Screw Hold Power200012SEM TEST400013Manufacturing Cost500014Magnesium Oxide1000TOTALRs62,100S.
No.PhaseBudget Amount1Phase I100002Phase II250003Phase III27100Declaration:I, ________________________ belonging to _______________________ department is responsible for the details furnished above. The content is unique and belongs to me (us).Name of the Student: Name of the Mentor:Signature with date Signature with date