EXPERIMENT 1 DATE:06.01.18
TAKING CASE HISTORY
Pepinsky defined counselling as an interaction that i) occurs between two
individuals called the client and counsellor, ii) takes place in a professional
setting and iii) is initiated and maintained to facilitate changes in the
behaviour of the client. (Rao, 2002)
Counselling has three stages, namely Initial
Disclosure, In-Depth Exploration and Commitment to Action.
Stage 1: Initial Disclosure
This stage is
mainly necessary for rapport building between the client and the counsellor,
since they are unknown to each other. The main goal here is to alleviate the
fears of the client and to promote self-disclosure. To effectively achieve
this, the counsellor needs to exhibit the characteristics of empathy,
congruence and unconditional positive regard towards the client, as described by
Carl Rogers. Egan adds the condition of concreteness to these. The counsellor
is specifically required to ‘attend’ to the client’s behaviour, i.e. pay close
attention towards the words and actions of the client. During this stage, if
the counsellor realises that counselling is not the best mode of intervention,
s/he can refer the client to another person/resource in the community.
This stage aims
at the client achieving a clearer and stronger sense of direction and hope. The
client’s problems are discussed further and understood better. The counsellor’s
effective use of confrontations, interventions, empathetic responses and
immediacy plays a major role in this stage. Then the counsellor and client
agree to an assessment and diagnosis of the problem that is jointly acceptable.
Commitment to Action
In this stage the client is required to decide upon
the ways s/he plans to achieve the goals that have developed during the earlier
two stages. This is done by considering possible alternative paths for the
client and assessing them with respect to their probable consequences. These
are mostly suggested by the client itself with occasional suggestions from the
counsellor. After the action plan is chosen, the client goes ahead by trying
the new behaviours while updating the counsellor about his/her progress. If the
client is satisfied with the outcomes of these, the counselling is completed.
As given by Lewis (1970), the following are ethics of
Discussing a client with other persons is
considered unethical unless done so with the intent of helping the client.
A counsellor is expected to respect the
principle of confidentiality by not sharing any of the client’s information
with non-professional persons irrespective of whether or not it will be helpful
to the case without permission from the client.
The counsellor is also not under the compulsion
to divulge details to the government or employer of the client and the top
priority is always the client. (Rao, 2002)
Name: Chrysler Dias
Qualification: FY B.A.
The subject was brought in and briefed about him
being the client and the experimenter being the counsellor during the
experiment. When the mock session begun, a rapport needed to be established between
the client and the counsellor and to achieve this, the client was greeted and
general questions, such as his name, age and qualifications were asked. He was
then informed about the confidentiality principle. Further, basic questions
about the client’s family background were asked and he was requested to
describe in brief his presenting problem. The client’s body language was also
observed. Any questions asked by the client about the counselling sessions were
answered. After this, the client was told that the counsellor would look into
the matter and that they would discuss his issues in detail in the coming
sessions. The client was thanked and the session was ended. The subject was
then escorted out.
Rao, S. N.
(2002). Counselling and Guidance (2nd ed.). Tata McGraw Hill