Every country has it’s own rules and regulations for its
media systems. How media systems come about and grow throughout the years have
a major effect on the people of that country. Some countries allow for their
citizens to post freely on Instagram and tweet whatever comes to their mind on
Twitter while other countries are strict on what their citizens can do and say
over the internet. Since some countries’ media is heavily regulated, it makes
it hard for less regulated countries to penetrate the wall that heavily
regulated countries have set up.
At the early period of the modern
history of China, the relationship between government and society was extremely
unbalanced. The Chinese government held power over the Chinese people and
controlled the media, making the media extremely political. The Chinese
government has kept a tight eye on both new media and traditional media to
avoid questioning and challenging of their authority. The government has used
many tactics in order to keep control over their media, like using monitoring
systems and firewalls, blocking websites, and jailing bloggers and activists.
There is an extensive list of websites that have been blocked from use in China
that are used everyday in countries such as the United States. All Google
services, Instagram, Yahoo, and Facebook are just a few of the websites that
have been blocked from use in China. Google’s battle with the Chinese government over internet censorship and the
Norwegian Nobel Committee’s awarding of the 2010 Peace Prize to jailed Chinese
activist Liu Xiaobo have also increased international attention to censorship
issues. Liu Xiaobo was a Chinese activist that was pro-democracy. He was an
adviser to student protesters and joined a weeklong hunger strike in order to
protest against the Chinese Communist party. He then drafted something called
“Charter 08” which was a 19-point program that called for greater political
freedom in China. He was arrested mere hours before the document would be
released online. This event highlighted the issue of regulation in China.
The economic reform decreased the governing
function of media and created a tendency for mass media to stand for the
society but not only authority. The previous unbalanced structure between
powered government and weak society was loosed by the policy in some level, but
not truly changed until the emergence of Internet. At first the regulator did
not regard Internet as a category of mass media but a technique of business.
Underestimating the power of the internet as a communications tool resulted in
a lack of internet regulation. Since then, the internet has changed
communication methods, media structure and overthrown the pattern of public
voice expression in China.
The internet regulation in China is formed by the
Legislation, Administration, Technical control, and agenda control. China owns
the greatest amount of legislation in the world. According the statistics that
lead up to 2008, 14 different departments, including the NPC of China and the
Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China, had published more than
60 laws related to regulation of the internet. More
than sixty Internet regulations have been created by the government of China,
which have been implemented by provincial branches of state-owned ISPs, companies, and
it comes to the administration of China, the Ministry of Industry and
Information Technology is responsible for the development and regulation of
media while the Ministry of Public Security regulates security. The Chinese government deploys myriad ways of censoring
the internet. The Golden Shield Project, colloquially known as the Great Firewall, is the center of the government’s online censorship and surveillance
effort. Its methods include bandwidth throttling, keyword filtering, and blocking access to certain websites. According to Reporters Without Borders, the
firewall makes large-scale use of Deep Packet Inspection technology to block access based on keyword detection.
According to Jason Q. Ng, the government also employs a diverse range of methods to induce journalists to censor themselves,
including dismissals and demotions, libel lawsuits, fines, arrests, and forced
televised confessions. Jason Q. Ng is the author of book Blocked on Weibo and specializes in the censorship of Chinese
China’s constitution gives it
citizens freedom of speech and press, but Chinese media regulations are more
opaque than transparent because of how China cracks down on it’s citizens media
use. In May of 2010, the Chinese government issued its first “white paper” on
the internet that focused on the concept of internet sovereignty. This requires
all internet users in China to abide by the Chinese laws and regulations,
including foreign organizations operating in China. The Public Pledge of
Self-Regulation and Professional Ethics for China Internet Industry is a
document that Chinese internet companies are required to sign in order to have
domain, and the pledge has even stricter rules. Any website that threatens or
challenges the power of the Chinese government is blocked without question.
This plays a huge part in international media as well. For example, if Chinese
citizens see how free Americans are to post on social media and how the media
is less regulated, it might make Chinese citizens angry and begin to protest.
This is a huge reason for why China blocks media from other countries, and
keeps their media isolated from the world. Reporters Without Borders is a
France-based, international non-profit, non-governmental organization that
promotes and defends the freedom of information and press. According to
Reporters Without Borders, China was ranked 176 out of 180 countries in 2016.
The government deems that this website, along with YouTube and many others, are
dangerous for the government, since these websites contain material that can be
considered a threat to political stability. The government does everything
within it’s power to prevent social unrest. The Chinese government is
more fearful of Chinese than they are of any foreign nation.
the last five years, there have been many improvements in the Colombian
internet, despite many challenges such as low digital literacy and high costs.
Having high costs makes widespread access harder. 2009 marked the year the
Colombia had surpassed 2 million internet users, compared to total internet
connections of 900,00 by the end of 2005. Broadband was first introduced in Colombia
in 1997, and the service charged Colombians in American dollars, making it
expensive to use. For quite some time, only two cities, Bogota and Bucaramanga,
had access to broadband and cable internet access. Due to the high price of the
internet, it was only available in the rich parts of those two cities.
regards to censorship, there are no government restrictions on the internet.
Users have the ability to post freely, and use whatever websites they want to.
However, journalism in Colombia is dangerous. According to
Colombian press freedom organization FLIP, more than 140 journalists have been
assassinated in Colombia since 1977. The reason why journalists are targeted is
because Colombia attempts to obstruct and limit speech. Journalists have been tracked online
and followed offline because of their work exposing corruption and
irregularities at the core of institutions such as the National Police. Colombia’s
government and the Chinese government share a similarity here, which is banning
or reprimanding those that have something to say about the government or its
policies. For this reason, journalists practice self-censorship
in order to reduce the amount harm they will face. Due to Colombian law, ISPS
are required to monitor content and report any illegal activity to the
government. They have a program called Internet Sano, which means healthy
internet, which is a campaign that teaches Colombians how to properly use the
internet freedom climate over the last year has been marked by persisting
concerns over excessive and illegal surveillance, along with
criminal penalties for defamation accompanied with copyright violations. Issues
surrounding net neutrality have also emerged at the forefront of debate in
Colombia, prompted by the expansion of zero-rating programs. Net neutrality is
the principle that Internet service providers should enable access to all
content and applications regardless of the source. It makes it so that wed
domains cannot favor or block particular products or websites, and they cannot
discriminate against users by slowing down packet speed or charging them more
money for internet access. When users manage to overcome access and affordability
issues, however, they are able to view and disseminate content relatively
freely(Freedom House, 2016).
removal is often in Colombian internet, and is cause by a foggy legislation. While
prosecutions for dissemination of content online are still rare, harsh
penalties for minor copyright violations and criminal penalties for
defamation constitute serious violations of users’ rights. Diego
Gómez, a biology student, could face four to eight years in prison and
substantial fines after sharing a thesis of another person on Scribd, even
though he did not claim any profit or attribution.
challenges to users’ rights come in the form of violence and impunity. For the
past five decades, the Colombian government, various paramilitary groups, and
guerrilla groups have been engaged in armed conflict. Despite peace talks
between the government and the FARC since 2012, high levels of insecurity
persist. At least sixteen journalists have been murdered and many more have
been threatened since 2005, with little response from the judiciary.
Self-censorship both online and offline has become a measure against such
threats, particularly in rural areas where violence and impunity are more
pervasive than in cities.
reducing any chance of this situation changing, the legal commission for
oversight of intelligence activities has not been able to fulfill its duties
because of bureaucratic obstacles. In recent years, Colombian nongovernmental
organizations—namely the Foundation for Freedom of the Press in Colombia
(FLIP), Fundación Karisma, Dejustica, Colnodo, and, lately, the Colombian
Jurists Commission (CCJ)—have made calls for more information regarding the
scope of government surveillance and threats to users’ privacy, issues that
will likely gain greater traction in Colombia as internet usage increases.
The film industry in
China ranks second behind the US and Canada, generating whopping $6.6 billion
in 2016. Oriental Movie Metropolis and Hengdian World studios are the largest
movie and drama production complex in the world. In 2012, China became the
second largest market in the world due to the box office. For the past decade,
the film industry in China has been experiencing an annual average growth of a
whopping 35% but experienced a meagre 3.7% in 2016 compared to 48% it experienced in 2015. Hollywood fared better
in China and accounted for 41.7% of the total box office in 2016. China is also
set to produce 1,612 cinemas between 2016 and 2017. The most notable film
studio in China is Hengdian World Studios(World Atlas). According to Time,
China has been ascending in the entaitnment industry in a phenomenal way. An
average of 22 screens were unveiled in China in 2015 each day. That same year,
the Chinese box office surged by almost 50% over 2015. Hollywood is even
expecting the expanding Chinese middle class to make up for the views Hollywood
hasn’t been acquiring at home. Hollywood movies that tank in the box office can
still be redeemed by the Chinese internet. World of Warcraft, which cost $160
million to make, managed less than $25 million at the U.S. box office on its
opening weekend. But the video-game adaptation scored $156
its first five days in Chinese theaters, on the back of intense gaming interest
first got its start in 1896 when motion picture was introduced. Most movies
were centered in Shanghai because it was the largest, thriving city in the Far
East. Many companies began to open in China from that point on. The Chinese
films that became important to the history of Chinese films were produced
during the Left-wing movement in the 1930’s. Films focused on class struggle,
the common people, and external threats such as Japanese aggression. Since
films in this period were so successful, movies that were produced post 1930’s
were apart of the golden period of Chinese film( Geiselmann, 2006). The
production companies that were a force to be reckoned with during this era were
Lianhua, Mingxing and Tianyi.
The era of the
golden period ended in 1937 when the Japanese invaded China. Since Japan
invaded Shanghai, many filmmakers left in order to continue their businesses,
many relocating to Hong Kong. This began the “Sole Island” era of film. It was
called Sole Island because Shanghai served as one of the only productions
cities for a large mile radius in the area that became Japanese territory. At the
end of World War II, the Japanese film industry became integrated into Chinese
film. This prompted the second Golden Age of Cinema to begin in 1945. During
this period, Chinese film moved away from the leftist theme the previous golden
age had, and moved into producing films of different genres. Most importantly,
the problems that came from postwar struggles.
Communist revolution began in 1949, and this is when film became even more
important for its ability to be propaganda. The Communist Party of China banned
Chinese and Hollywood films in order to take control over mass media, and have
the movies focus back on regular people. Then in the cultural revolution, the
film industry became even more regulated and restricted. A large percentage of
films from before this era were banned, leading to new ones being produced.
Movies came back into regular production years after the cultural revolution, becoming
a popular means of entertainment. However, in the 1980s, the film industry
faced hard times, because of how intense the competition was, and how the
government were regulating the movies. The movies had to be socially acceptable.
It wasn’t until
the Fifth Generation of Chinese film that Chinese film began attracting
popularity overseas. Then in the Sixth Generation, amateur films began to rise
in popularity as many filmmakers were making their movies “underground” due to
the censorship rules after the Tiananmen Square protests. These films consisted
of non-professional actors shot with digital devices and long takes. In 1999, the multi-national production of Crouching
Tiger, Hidden Dragon achieved massive success in the Western box office.
However, it did not do well in the Chinese box-office, being disregarded due to
how Westernized the movie was. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon provided an
introduction to Chinese cinema for international viewers, and increased the
popularity of many Chinese films which would have been unknown to Westerner
November of 2016, China, passed a film law that bans content deemed harmful to
the dignity, honor, and interests of the People’s Republic(Edwards, 2016). This
encourages the core values of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee,
which has socialist views. Socialism is a political and economic theory of social
organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and
exchange should be owned and/or regulated by the community. A common theme
between the Chinese government and the Colombian government is their yearn for an
almost perfect society in which there is no threat or challenge to its
authority. Both Colombia and China wish to control everything about their country.
The Colombian film industry started in 1897 when the
first motion picture film camera was introduced to the country. It wasn’t long
after the introduction of the cinematograph that the civil war known as the
Thousand Days’ War began, and this war ended continuation of films being
produced. Films first focused on the nature of Colombia, its people, and their
daily lives. These films became popular because of the Di Domenico brothers.
These brothers produced the very first documentary in Colombia title El drama del quince de Octubre, which
means the drama of the 15th of October. Most films focused on nature
and life until 1922 when Maximo Calvo Olmedo directed Maria, and this film was
the first fiction film from Colombia.
International films were preferred over Colombian film in
the 1930’s and this led to the film industry’s decline. Filmmakers and directors
did not have as much money and support to make the same amount or films of the
same caliber as Hollywood films. Another factor was the fact that Colombian
films were silent, whereas Hollywood films had color and sound.
There was a huge amount of poverty in Colombia in the 70’s,
and thus became a topic for many movies. This opened up the eyes of international
viewers to what was happening in the country. In the 1970s, the FOCINE(
Compania de Formento Cinemagrafico/Cinematographic Fomenting Company) was
established to encourage more films being made by promoting cinema. This company
started support fund in order to produce more films. The following years, 29
films, short films, and documentaries were produced.
The Colombian government passed the Law of Cinema, which adopted
help for local films to be produced. These films were sponsored by the government.
The senate made it so that cinema would be funded through taxes collected from
producers, directors, and distributors. President Alvaro Uribe Velez wrote a
reform to stop funding to the Law of Cinema, which caused a lot of backlash for
the President and the government.