demand and supply has always been one of the crucial factors for the evolution
of civilization. Energy in the form of electricity is produced from solar,
wind, nuclear power, burning fossil fuels, etc; however, production of
electricity from renewable sources like, solar and wind need a storage device
for their effective usage during depletion time. In this context, electrochemical
energy storage devices such as batteries play an important role in the
efficient use of renewable energy. Battery is a collective arrangement of
electrical cells that stores and produces electricity by chemical reaction;
storage and release is realized by electrons and ions.1
first battery, Voltaic pile was developed by Volta in the year 1800. It
consists of a series of copper and zinc discs separated by card boards
moistened with salt solution. With more than 200 years of development, battery
technology has achieved an era that batteries are safely used for transport of
electricity without heat loss. They can be made in all varieties of sizes and
shapes and useful for various applications. Batteries are mainly of two types,
viz. primary and secondary batteries.
batteries are assembled in charged condition and the electrochemical reaction
is mostly irreversible. Examples: Lechlanche, alkaline MnO2, silver oxide,
and zinc/air batteries.2
Electrochemical reaction associated with secondary batteries is reversible.
Hence the battery can be charged/ discharged for a number of cycles and are
named as rechargeable batteries. Examples: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium,
nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion batteries. According to the chemical reaction
involved, rechargeable batteries can further be classified as lead-acid,
nickel-metal-hydride, zinc-air, sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, lithium ion,
Li-air batteries etc.
the various rechargeable batteries aforementioned, Rechargeable Li-ion
batteries have gained considerable interest in recent years in terms of highest
specific energy, cell voltage, good capacity retention and negligibly small
is desirable that the energy delivered by a battery during its discharge should
be as high as possible. The energy output of a battery is dependent on the
equivalent weight of active material present in it. Specific capacity i.e.
capacity per gram of active material= 26.8/Equivalent weight Ah.g-1.
metal being the third lightest element, lithium based materials with low
molecular weight can effectively produce batteries with high capacity. Further,
lithium ion batteries employs non aqueous electrolyte that offer high operating
voltage (>4V) in comparison to other batteries with aqueous electrolyte
(1-2V). Thus, low weight, compact lithium ion batteries established a strong
market place for portable electronic devices and could find central application
if lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles become reality.4-5