Earthquakes are caused by the abrupt sliding of tectonic

Earthquakes are caused by the abrupt sliding of tectonic plates against each other, resulting in longitudinal and transverse seismic waves, which along the earth crust and cause the ground to shake (CRED, 2010). According to the US Geological Survey, USGS, 7.0 magnitude scale of the earthquake or larger can cause extensive and disastrous structural damage on land. Evidently, some places located in the unstable regions of the earth crust are more vulnerable to receive greater effects from the earthquakes than other regions. James Daniell (2013), the author from the BBC news, described the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, also known as the First Great Sichuan earthquake or Wenchuan earthquake, as one of the largest earthquakes in human history that caused the second highest socio-economic losses in the history. Measuring 7.9 magnitudes, its epicenter was located eighty kilometers away from the 7.6 million people in Chengdu city, nineteen kilometers under the earth. Since there were 87,150 people died and missing, the USGS ranked the Sichuan earthquake on the seventh of the top ten earthquakes by the number of people killed (Daniell, 2013). In accordance to CATDAT Damaging Earthquake Database reported, more than 7.5 million households were damaged and destroyed; at least 4,800,000 people required shelter; the estimated direct loss was 191,913 million dollars; and, the cost to rebuild the affected area was 137.5 billion dollars (Daniell, 2013). The article Symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Anxiety Among Adolescents Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China written by Fang Fan, Ying Zhang, Yanyun Yang, Leo Mo, and Xianchen Liu (2011) studied the prevalence and severity of PTSD, anxiety, and depression among Chinese adolescents for 6 months after the earthquake to describe post-traumatic stress reactions and their associations with stress exposure. In the study, 2,081 participants completed measures of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, dividing as 956 male students with a mean age of 14.6 years and 1,125 female students with a mean age of 14.5 years (Fan, Zhang, Yang, Mo, & Liu, 2011). The scale scores on PTSD ranged from 24 to 116 with a mean of 37.42 and its standard deviation was 13.97. Also, the mean PTSD severity score in females was 38.96 and in males was 35.60, indicating that the PTSD severity score was distinctly higher in females (Fan, Zhang, Yang, Mo, & Liu, 2011). Fan and colleagues (2011) reported that the total score on anxiety ranged from 0 to 72 with a mean of 22.60 and its standard deviation was 12.91. Accordingly, girls scored significantly higher than boys with means of 25.53 its standard deviation was 12.78 and 19.15 its standard deviation was 12.21 respectively (Fan, Zhang, Yang, Mo, & Liu, 2011). The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and PTSD was 48.6%, which girls also scored higher than boys (Fan, Zhang, Yang, Mo, & Liu, 2011). Based on the result, half of the sample had symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, which women were suffered more than men. Specifically, the prevalence rated of PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms were 15.8%, 40.5%, and 24.5% respectively (Fan, Zhang, Yang, Mo, & Liu, 2011). A sudden sliding of the submarine tectonic plate, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions are the primary factors that create tsunamis. Tsunami is a Japanese name in which literally translated into a tidal wave, affecting harbor and coastal areas. As these waves approach the shoreline, both their size and height are massively increased. The article Mental Health and Related Factors after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami written by Yokoyama, et al. (2014) reported that on March 11th, 2011, the northern part of Honshu called Tohoku area was severe destructed by a 9.0 magnitude Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki earthquake, also known as the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the first week, the earthquake caused 262 aftershocks of magnitude 5.0 or stronger. Following the earthquake, the 35 meters high tsunami destroyed the whole coastal areas. Since the tsunami caused a cooling system failure at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan’s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, NISA, had to declare a state of emergency at both number one and two Fukushima Daiichi sites Boiling Water Reactors, BWRs. Research project for prospective Investigation of health problems Among Survivors, RIAS, conducted a research 6 to 11 months between September 2011 and February 2013 to find out the impact toward mental health of residents in the affected area (Yokoyama, et al., 2014). The survey was carried out in three cities in Iwate Prefecture in Tohoku that were heavily destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami, which are: Yamada, Otsuchi, and Rikuzentakata (Yokoyama, et al., 2014). Consistent with the analysis of the study, Yokoyama, et al., (2014) found that there were 799 people, 4.3%, died and were missing in Yamada; in Rikuzentakata, there were 1,811 people, 7.8%, died and were missing; and, 1,311 people, 8.6%, died in Otsuchi. Accordingly, Otsuchi has the second highest ratio of dead and missing; Rikuzentakata was the third highest; and, Yamada as the fifth (Yokoyama, et al., 2014). In the research study, the ranges of scores were classified into three categories: serious mental health problem for 13 to 24, a moderate mental health problem for 5 to 12, and no mental health problem for 0 to 4 (Yokoyama, et al., 2014). Consistent with the result, there were a total of 42.6 of survivors were determined to have a serious mental health problem or a moderate mental health problem in which can be divided as 36.4% of participants with a moderate mental health problem and 6.2% with a serious mental health problem (Yokoyama, et al., 2014). Each year, there are about 50 volcanoes erupt every year. The article Long-term health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: A prospective cohort study in 2010 and 2013 written by Heidrun Hlodversdottir, Gudrun Petursdottir, Hanne Krage Carlsen, Thorarinn Gislason, and Arna Hauksdottir (2016) reported that on April 14th, 2010 in the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull shut down air traffic and closed down airspace in Europe. Consequently, more than 100,000 flights were canceled across Europe, costing the airline industry