Each this precious asset (education). In summary the United

Each
and every individual in the society is entitled to have equal access to
opportunities, regardless of one’s race, class or gender. The society should be
built in such a way that the life we tread on is level for everyone so that we
can all achieve the desired qualities to compete fairly amongst ourselves
without some people having an upper hand in the developmental progress.
However, the general outlook of most of the societies we have lived has clearly
shown that equality has not been a mean task to achieve. Therefore, the
underlying character of life in the society has been inequality… inequality…,
and inequality everywhere. The advent of inequity has indeed been pushed to a
significant high level by the prospect of racism, especially in the American
society. In this analysis therefore, we will indulge into the analysis of works
that thematically narrow into the perspective of education and income
inequalities and how these two manifest themselves from the angle of race,
class and gender.

Race
and Racism: A Critical Approach
by Tanya Maria Galash-Boza

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Chapter 6: Educational Inequality

In
‘Educational Inequality’, the author outlines the historical and current
inequality situation of evidenced in the education sector in the United States.
This chapter tries to showcase the progress that has been made in the education
sector to achieve equilibrium in the provision of this precious asset
(education).

In
summary the United States is renowned for its policy of democracy, the
principle that equality should be practiced at all times and hence the aspect
of providing equal educational opportunities is a goal that all stakeholders in
the sector would strive to achieve (p. 141). The author provides a description
of how the Whites, more so before the decision made in the case of Brown
v. Board of Education (1954), got outright privileges to attend schools
while the other ethnic affiliations were denied the chance to get educated. In
the least of cases, that opportunity to learn was allowed, but was poorly
educated, owing to the implementation of school segregation which meant they
learnt in gravely under resourced schools’ (p. 142). With the racial segregation
in place, it was imminent that the educational services or opportunities were favorable
biased to the Whites.

The
disadvantaged groups have strived in their own ways to ensure their children go
to school, with the African Americans forming Community-based schools (p. 142),
landmark cases going their way especially the 1954 ruling (p. 145). The author
also states that steps have been made to ensure that the provision of education
to all the ethnic groups in America is made as equal as possible. This was
evident by the introduction of the affirmative action for university education
(1968). The legal segregation is a thing of the past nowadays, as the gaping
disparities in the education achievement between the Whites and other ethnic groups
have reduced amazingly (p. 151). In fact, as the author finds, the Asian
student s are increasingly outdoing all other ethnic groups in school
completion rates.

From
this, it is my analysis that the inequality in the provision of opportunities
to learn still continues even in the modern times, and as the author categorically
states, “the educational achievement in the United States vary by racial or
ethnic group.” (p. 150). In addition to the segregation of schools (144), the
author opines that educational inequality has persisted in the modern times by
other factors as parental socioeconomic status (153), the theory of “Acting
White” (154), tracking (155) as well as the aspect of hidden curriculum (160).

In
my opinion, I would therefore state that the author has sufficiently showcased
how the educational inequality has been in the United State as early as during
the slavery period, giving reasons as to why it still exists even with the huge
efforts that have been made to diminish the gap between the whites and other
ethnic groups in terms of educational achievement. There need to been abject
laws and regulation with strict implementation to ensure that the educational
equality is achieved in the United States.

I
would conclude that the educational inequality in the United States has been as
result of the societal and cultural structures that have been bred in the
society, which means that the whites, who are historically in higher status
than others, will always be at an advantageous position to access education.

Chapter 7: Income and Labor Market
Inequality

In
this chapter, the author showcases how the Whites are preferred in the labor
market as well as the income given in return for the offered labor.

The
chapter can be summarized to reflect that the income in United States is
determined by the aspect of race, ethnicity and gender, even when the
individuals under consideration have the same “…experience, education, skills,
years on the job, and productivity” (p. 166). In general terms, the inequalities
evidenced in the United States in terms of income can be directed to the issues
of unemployment proportion, promotion and the stability of employment among the
different ethnic groups. In terms of gender, the disparity in income and labor
market suggests that more White women are likely to enter the labor market and
will definitely earn more than the black women ever will (p. 170). The fact
that black individuals have averagely lower educational achievement, they will
tend to be disadvantaged as they will have low valued skills as compared to
their white counterparts (172). The author confirms that indeed racial
discrimination is a hinder to one getting a “…job, promotion or rise” (p. 183).
He also opines that the change experienced by the economy from basically a
manufacturing to a service-based economy greatly affected the Black working
class people while the Whites prospered despite the deviation in the economy
(p. 184).

In
simple terms, this chapter can be analyzed as a logical description of the ways
why the White population is privileged in the achievement of labor
opportunities and income. The author has satisfied the objective of the
chapter, which was to describe the dimension of income inequality in terms of
race, ethnicity and gender. The author has also chose to highlight the steps to
reduce inequality in income and labor, showing how affirmative action (187) and
the individual choices of entrepreneurship and self-employment (189) as means
to achieve the “American Dream” (p. 189).