Diffusion of Technology
utilization and usage of the conventional energy resources which leads to
increasing concern of the greenhouse effect and polluting the environment are
forcing engineers and scientists to develop electricity from non-conventional
sources of energy. Due to effects of pollution and global warming there is a need for
generating power from renewable sources. The reason for generating power using
gravity is that it is available all over the Earth, abundant and consistent
too. In this project we designed a methodology wherein gravitational energy is
further amplified in terms of its magnitude by using perpetual motion mechanism
and hence can be successfully transformed into usable electrical energy. The
basic concept of a gravity power generating mechanism is simple.
Since all the sources are limited and non-precise, this enables to shift the
attention towards gravity.
With an estimated value of survey, it is believed that
about 33% of the whole world’s population is off-grid (having no access to
mains power). Gravity being one of the fundamental forces of nature, is available
everywhere across the Earth. Currently it is a dream to meet all energy
requirements of the world. But when we have a light that gives free, clean energy
at least the basic requirement of millions of people will be fulfilled. The
vast proportion of existing solutions for heat and light in remote, off-grid,
areas rely on bio-mass (carbon-based fuel sources). Concerns over ecological
impact aside, a reliance on burning biomass for lighting (specifically oil) is
expensive, keeping millions in fuel poverty, is unhealthy (producing toxic
fumes and poor quality light) and dangerous (fire). Initial Brief for
‘Carbon-Free Kerosene Lamp’ that led directly on to ‘Gravity Light’: The
charity Solar Aid identified kerosene (known in the UK as paraffin) as the
predominant, bio-mass fuel source burned for lighting across developing African
nations. They also identified some obstacles to the adoption of alternatives to
kerosene that seemed to exist.
find an eco-friendly solution for domestic & street light electrification
applications using stored muscular energy in the gravitational potential
the usage of stored muscular energy.
significant amount of power for domestic application.
tested results and mathematically evaluated results are to be compared & if
necessary, the required modifications need to be incorporated.
a working prototype of the concept of electricity generation using
gravitational potential energy.
Generation, Selection and Validation
Concept for Mechanism of Gravity Light
A suitable mechanism for the
working of the gravity light was to be selected. After considering a number of
designs and discarding a few we came up with three major design concepts which
can be used for generating electricity. Following are the concepts: –
Spring Actuated Gravity Lamp
The weight is attached to a rope which is wound over a pulley whose center
consists of a spring which is normally unwound. The spring is fitted onto a
shaft through a slot in the shaft and is wound over the shaft. The winding of
the spring causes the spring to compress under tension and rotate the shaft
along with the winding action. This rotates the pulley and the weight ascends.
After a certain height an initial tension is given to the spring and the spring
starts unwinding slowly at a constant rate depending on the weight attached to
the rope end. The force of the unwinding force rotates the shaft and helps
control the descent rate of the weight. This shaft would be further connected
to a dynamo shaft which will provide us with the required electricity.
Counter Weight Type Gravity
This employs the use of counter
weight principle for lowering the weight and in turn maintains a control on the
descent rate of the falling weight. If the weight to be lifted is ‘x’ then the
counterweight that must be added so that the weight just stars to descend is
‘x+0.9’. The weight will be attached to the rope of a pulley and this pulley
will be mounted over a shaft which will be connected to the dynamo shaft
Bicycle Wheel Type Gravity Light
This concept is the most practical one out of the three and it involves a rim
of a bicycle wheel from which a shaft protrudes supported by bearings and has a
sprocket onto which a chain of required pitch and length is mounted. The weight
is mounted on one side of the chain and this is suspended over the sprocket and
lifted by mechanical means to a certain height. The sprocket is given an
initial torque and due to the self-weight and gravity the weight falls down at
a controlled decent rate.
After a close deliberation of all the concepts
generated we made a matrix to determine the concept to be used for the working
of the gravity light. This matrix consists of the attributes the product is
supposed to have and is compared for all the three concepts generated. Each of
these attributes are graded according to the data from the market survey and
their importance in the product design. Accordingly, the concepts were marked
out a maximum score of ten and the grade of the attribute was multiplied to get
the sore of the concept for one particular attribute. The total score was
calculated and marks were given out of the total overall score of the
attributes and the marks obtained by the concept. In the following table there
are eleven attributes and three concepts to be verified.
for designing the mount, mechanism for suspending the weight and was kept as
simple as possible.
For 1.5 RPM of sprocket
i.e. for every minute the weight descends down by
Therefore, for 15 minutes: 15*0.375=5.6 meters height