Diffusion of TechnologyGRAVITYLIGHTAbstractThe intenseutilization and usage of the conventional energy resources which leads toincreasing concern of the greenhouse effect and polluting the environment areforcing engineers and scientists to develop electricity from non-conventionalsources of energy. Due to effects of pollution and global warming there is a need forgenerating power from renewable sources. The reason for generating power usinggravity is that it is available all over the Earth, abundant and consistenttoo.
In this project we designed a methodology wherein gravitational energy isfurther amplified in terms of its magnitude by using perpetual motion mechanismand hence can be successfully transformed into usable electrical energy. Thebasic concept of a gravity power generating mechanism is simple.Since all the sources are limited and non-precise, this enables to shift theattention towards gravity.IntroductionWith an estimated value of survey, it is believed thatabout 33% of the whole world’s population is off-grid (having no access tomains power).
Gravity being one of the fundamental forces of nature, is availableeverywhere across the Earth. Currently it is a dream to meet all energyrequirements of the world. But when we have a light that gives free, clean energyat least the basic requirement of millions of people will be fulfilled.
Thevast proportion of existing solutions for heat and light in remote, off-grid,areas rely on bio-mass (carbon-based fuel sources). Concerns over ecologicalimpact aside, a reliance on burning biomass for lighting (specifically oil) isexpensive, keeping millions in fuel poverty, is unhealthy (producing toxicfumes and poor quality light) and dangerous (fire). Initial Brief for’Carbon-Free Kerosene Lamp’ that led directly on to ‘Gravity Light’: Thecharity Solar Aid identified kerosene (known in the UK as paraffin) as thepredominant, bio-mass fuel source burned for lighting across developing Africannations. They also identified some obstacles to the adoption of alternatives tokerosene that seemed to exist.
Objectives1) Tofind an eco-friendly solution for domestic & street light electrificationapplications using stored muscular energy in the gravitational potentialenergy.2) Prolongthe usage of stored muscular energy. 3) Generatingsignificant amount of power for domestic application.4) Practicallytested results and mathematically evaluated results are to be compared & ifnecessary, the required modifications need to be incorporated. 5) Makinga working prototype of the concept of electricity generation usinggravitational potential energy.
ConceptGeneration, Selection and Validation Concept for Mechanism of Gravity Light A suitable mechanism for theworking of the gravity light was to be selected. After considering a number ofdesigns and discarding a few we came up with three major design concepts whichcan be used for generating electricity. Following are the concepts: – Spring Actuated Gravity LampThe weight is attached to a rope which is wound over a pulley whose centerconsists of a spring which is normally unwound. The spring is fitted onto ashaft through a slot in the shaft and is wound over the shaft. The winding ofthe spring causes the spring to compress under tension and rotate the shaftalong with the winding action. This rotates the pulley and the weight ascends.After a certain height an initial tension is given to the spring and the springstarts unwinding slowly at a constant rate depending on the weight attached tothe rope end. The force of the unwinding force rotates the shaft and helpscontrol the descent rate of the weight.
This shaft would be further connectedto a dynamo shaft which will provide us with the required electricity. Counter Weight Type GravityLamp This employs the use of counterweight principle for lowering the weight and in turn maintains a control on thedescent rate of the falling weight. If the weight to be lifted is ‘x’ then thecounterweight that must be added so that the weight just stars to descend is’x+0.
9′. The weight will be attached to the rope of a pulley and this pulleywill be mounted over a shaft which will be connected to the dynamo shaftproducing electricity. Bicycle Wheel Type Gravity LightThis concept is the most practical one out of the three and it involves a rimof a bicycle wheel from which a shaft protrudes supported by bearings and has asprocket onto which a chain of required pitch and length is mounted.
The weightis mounted on one side of the chain and this is suspended over the sprocket andlifted by mechanical means to a certain height. The sprocket is given aninitial torque and due to the self-weight and gravity the weight falls down ata controlled decent rate. Concept Selection After a close deliberation of all the conceptsgenerated we made a matrix to determine the concept to be used for the workingof the gravity light. This matrix consists of the attributes the product issupposed to have and is compared for all the three concepts generated. Each ofthese attributes are graded according to the data from the market survey andtheir importance in the product design. Accordingly, the concepts were markedout a maximum score of ten and the grade of the attribute was multiplied to getthe sore of the concept for one particular attribute. The total score wascalculated and marks were given out of the total overall score of theattributes and the marks obtained by the concept.
In the following table thereare eleven attributes and three concepts to be verified. Design andManufacturing The approachfor designing the mount, mechanism for suspending the weight and was kept assimple as possible.For 1.5 RPM of sprocket i.e.
for every minute the weight descends down by0.375 meters. Therefore, for 15 minutes: 15*0.
375=5.6 meters heightis required. Conclusion